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Full text of "The mountain that was "God"; being a little book about the great peak which the Indians called "Tacoma", but which is officially named "Rainier""

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THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY 
REFERENCE DEPARTMENT 



This book is under no circumstances to be 
taken from the Building 



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St. Elmo Pass, between W inthrop Glacier and Interglacier. View from North side. 



'THE MOUNTALN THAT WAS GOD'" 

Illustrated with maps and 140 views of .Mt. Rainier (Tacoma). 
including eight three-color half-tones. 



In stout boards, with colored half-tone view of the Mountain and 

North Mowich Glacier in a storm, on front cover - - $1.00 net 

By mail, 12 cents extra 

In hea\*y paper co\ ers, with poster design of the .Mountain in colors 

and gilt, embossed ..--..... $().50 net 
By mail, 7 cents extra 



Published by 
JOHN H. WILLl.AMS, - - T.ACO.M A, WASHINGTON. 




Sunrise above the clouds, seen from Camp Curtis, on the \\ edge. «ilh \\ hite Glacier below. 




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HE MOUNTAIN THAT WAS 

''(jOD" ^ I5H1N(^ A LI I !IJ{ liOOK 

Ai^oir riii: (iKi:\r im:\k which im: 

INDIANS CALLliD "TACOM A" lU I W MICH 
IS OFFICIALLY NAMED "KAINIi:R" > .< 



BY 



JOHN H. WILLIAMS 



O, rarest miracle of mountain heights, 

Thou hast the sky for thy imperial dome, 

And dwell'st amon}i the stars all days and nijfhts. 

In the far heavens famiiiarls at home. 

— William llillis N\\nn: "Mt. Tacoma; an Apotheosis. 



TACOMA 

Published by the .Author 
1910 



573527 




Narada Falls, 175 teet, with Eagle Peak. It has been proposed to change the name 

to Cushnian Falls, in recognition of the late F. W. Cushman's work in 

Congress for the Government Road, which passes near the falls. 



Copyright, 1910 by John H. Williams 








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On [lie suminll of l^aiilc Rock in wiiilcr. l{o\ s limkiiii; over un HlKI-frmt piccipice. 

FOHKWOKI) 

Kvory summer there is demand for illustrated literature describing the mount ain 
variously called "Rainier" or "Tacoma." Hitherto, we have had only small collections 
of pictures, wiilmut text, and confined to the familiar south and southwest sides. 

The little book which I now offer aims to show the grandest and most accessible 
of our extinct volcanoes from all points of view. Like the glacial rivers, its text will 
be found a narrow stream flowing swiftly amidst great mountain scenery. Its abundant 
illustrations cover not only the giants' fairyland south of the peak, but also the equally 
stupendous scones that await the adventurer who penetrates the harder trails and climbs 
the greater glaciers of the north and east slopes. No book will ever be large enough 
to tell the whole story. That must be learned by summers of severe though profitable 
toil. 

The heroic features which the ice-streams have carved upon the face of Mount 
"Big Snow." with their fascinating "parks" and fiower-fields. their silvery cascades and 
gray glacial torrents, are every year becoming more friendly to visitors. Each summer 
sees more and better trails. The capital highway built by Pierce County through the 
Nisqually valley to the Forest Reserve and the road made by the government engineers 
up to the Nisqually glacier and the Paradise country have already opened a wonderland 
to the autoni()l)ilist. Roth these roads, however, should be widened: and the government 
road should, by all means, be continued around the Mountain, crossing the canyons 
below each glacier, and winding up to the glorious table-lands above. It will be a great 
day for the lover of the mountains when Congress, awakening to the value of the whole 
Park, shall make it easy to know all the charm and insi)iration of this priceless national 
playground. 

The title adopted for the book has reference, of course, to the Indian nature 
worship, of which something is said in the opening chapter. Both the title and a small 
part of the matter are reprinted from an article which I contributed last year to the 
New York Evening Post. Attention is called to the tangle in the names of glaciers and 
the need of a definitive nomenclature. As to the name of the Mountain itself, that 
famous bone of contention between two cities, I greatly prefer "Tacoma," one of the 
several authentic forms of the Indian name used by different tribes; but I believe that 
"Tahoma." proposed by the Rotary Club of Seattle, would be a justifiable compromise, 
and satisfy nearly everybody. Its adoi)tion would free our national map from one more 
of its meaningless names — the name, in this case, of an undistinguished foreign naval 
officer whose only connection with our history is the fact that he fought against us 



8 



THE MOUNTAIN THAT WAS "GOD" 



during the American Revolution. Incidentally, it would also free me from the need 
of an apology for using the hybrid "Rainier- Tacoma"! 

The purpose of the book, however, is descriptive rather than controversial. Its 
plan leaves most of the storV to the illustrations, with their explanatory "underlines." 
I have cut down the text in order to make room for the largest possible number of pic- 
tures. In selecting these, several thousand negatives and photographs have been exam- 
ined. The ones used here include many noteworthy views never before shown in any pub- 
lication — pictures that tell a great story. Conditions met by every photographer of 
ice scenes make it difficult, sometimes, to obtain perfect copy for the engraver. The 
collection as a whole, however, is as representative as can be made till some of the 
glaciers shall have been more fully explored. Owing to the disproportion of cuts to 
text, it has not always been possible to follow a logical order in placing the illustrations: 
but the full descriptions given, together with the map, will aid the reader to form a 
clear idea of the geography of the National Park and the characteristic aspects of the 
peak. I shall be grateful for correction of any errors, and for information as to photo- 
graphs that may add to the value of future editions. 

Many of the illustrations show wide reaches of wonderful country, and their details 
may well be studied with a reading glass. 

I am much indebted to the librarians and their courteous assistants at the Seattle 
and Tacoma public libraries; also to Prof. Flett for his interesting account of the flora 
of the National Park; to Mr. Eugene Ricksecker, of the United States Engineer Corps, 
for permission to reproduce his new map of the Park, now printed for the first time; 
and, most of all, to the photographers, both professional and amateur. In the table of 
illustrations, pages 11 to 13, credit is given the maker of each photograph. 

The book is sent out in the hope of promoting a wider knowledge of our country's 
noblest landmark. May it lead many of its readers to delightful days of recreation and 
adventure! 

Tacoma. .lune 1, 1910. J. H. W. 




The Mountain from Puyallnp River, near Tacoma. 




\\ Iliu- (;iacl(.-i aiul link- I .ilmiiKi. \mI h ImisIi iJi tiul ol i lie I'lilfidsh in Jrslanci-. 



("ONTFA'I'S 



I. .Mi>\iin "Bis Snow" iiiul Indian 'riadiiiDii . 

II. Tlie National i'ark and How to Hfacli it 

111. The Story of tin- .Mi.uiuain 

I\'. Tlic i'^lora (if the .Mountain Slopes. 1)\ I'roT. ,). 15. Flett 

\', Tlir Clinihcrs 



Page 
15 

37 

68 

90 

1(12 




Liiii> 1 igiii, ilu'j, uy A. ±1. wail' 
Basaltic Columns, part of "the Colonnade" on south side of South Mowich Glacier. These curious six-sided columns 
of volcanic rock, about KSfl feel high, are similar to those bordering the Cowlitz Glacier. 









Crevasses in Stevens Glacier, with Cowlitz Glacier and the Cowlitz Park country beyond. 




View from above Sluiskin Falls, at ^ p. in. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Titles marked * indicate engravings made from coi).vrighted photograplis. See notice 
under the illustration. 



THREE-COLOR H.ALP- TONES 
Title. Photographer. Page. 

Spanaway Lake, with Reflection of the Mountain A. H. Barnes. Frontispiece 

View from Electron, Showing West Side of the Mountain Asahel Curtis. 19 

View Northward from Top of Pinnacle Peak Dr. F. A. Scott. 46 

Looking Northeast from Slope of Pinnacle Peak Dr. F. A. Scott. 47 

* Ice Cave, Paradise Glacier A. H. Barnes. 57 

* Spray Park from Fay Peak W. P. Romans. 76 

Crevasse in Carbon Glacier Asahel Curtis. 85 

North Mowich Glacier and the Mountain in a Storm George V. Caesar. 95 

ONE -COLOR HALF TONES 

St. Elmo Pass A. \V. Archer. 2 

Sunrise above the Clouds, at Camp Curtis Asahel Curtis. 2 

Narada Falls and Eagle Peak A. H. B.irnes. 6 

On the Summit of Eagle Rock in Winter George V. Caesar. 7 

The Mountain from Puyallup River B. L. Aldrich. Jr. 8 

White Glacier and Little Tahoma Asahel Curtis. 9 

* Basaltic Columns near end of South Mowich Glacier A. H. Waite. 9 

Crevasses in Stevens Glacier, with Cowlitz Glacier Beyond Charles Bedford. 10 

View from alx)ve Sluiskin Falls, 3 p. m Mrs. H. A. Towne. 11 

From above Sluiskin Falls, 4 ]). m.. same day Mrs. H. A. Towne. 13 

* The Mountain from Lake Washington Romans Photographic Co. 14 

* Lost to the World Asahel Curtis. 15 

Snow Slopes, Upper Moraine Park George V. Caesar. 15 

Iron and Copper Mountains in Indian Henry's .\. G. Bowles, .Ir. 16 

Ice Terraces, South Tahoma Glacier Rodney L. Glisan. 16 

* North Peak and South Mowich Glacier in Storm A. H. Waite. 17 

■Ghost Trees" Mrs. H. A. Towne. 18 

Mountain Goat A. H. Barnes. 1 8 

Waterfall over Island of Rock, Stevens Glacier Dr. F. A. Scott. 21 

View South from Cowlitz Glacier to Mt. Adams Charles Bedford. 22 

Storm King Peak and Mineral Lake A. H. Barnes. 23 

Mineral Lake and the Mountain A. H. Denman. 23 

* Snow Lake in Indian Henry's A. H. Barnes. 24 

Cowlitz Glacier, Crevasses Charles Bedford. 25 

Paradise River, below its Glacier A. H. Barnes. 26 



22 THE MOUXTAIX THAT WAS "GOD' 



26 



Steam Caves in one of the Craters Asahel Curtis. 

West Side of Summit from Tahoma Fork A. H. Barnes. 

View of the Mountain from Beljica Peak A. H. Barnes. 28 

Great Rock on Ridge between North and South Tahoma Glaciers. . .Dr. F. A. Scott. 29 

Wind swept Trees on North Side . George V. Caesar. 30 

Exploring an Ice Cave, Paradise Glacier Dr. F. A. Scott. 30 

Peak Success from Indian Henry's ^Ii'S. H. A. Towne. 31 

Mt. St. Helens from Indian Henry's A. H. Barnes. 32 

The Mountain from Top of Cascades S. C. Smith. 33 

Ptarmigan, the Grouse of the Ice Fields Asahel Curtis. 34 

Climbing the Ice Terraces of Winthrop Glacier Dr. F. A. Scott. 34 

Portion of Spray Park George V. Caesar. 35 

Perilous Position on Crevasse in Cowlitz Glacier Charles Bedford. 36 

On Pierce Coimty Road, Passing Ohop Valley S. C. Lancaster. 37 

Cowlitz Chimneys S. C. Smith. 37 

* Old Road near Spanaway A. H. Barnes. 38 

Mystic Lake and Sluiskin Mountains Asahel Curtis. 38 

Automobile Partv above Nisqually Canyon. Pierce County Road . . . Asahel Curtis. 39 

Prof. O. D. Allen's Cottage Dr. F. A. Scott. 39 

One Mile of Carbon Glacier A. H. Denman. 40 

Camp on St. Elmo Pass. North Side of the Wedge Asahel Curtis. 40 

Little Mashell Falls, near Eatonville A. H. Barnes. 41 

Old Stage Road to Longmire Springs A. H. Barnes. 42 

Government Road in the Forest Reserve S. C. Lancaster. 43 

Ingraham Glacier Flowing Into Cowlitz Glacier Asahel Curtis. 43 

* On the Summit, Showing Columbia's Crest Asahel Curtis. 44 

Party Leaving the National Park Inn for Paradise Park Linkletter Photo Co. 44 

On the Government Road a Mile Above Longmire's . Linkletter Photo Co. 49 

Glacier Table, on Winthrop Glacier Asahel Curtis. 49 

Snout of Nisqually Glacier Linkletter Photo Co. 50 

Washington Torrents A. H. Barnes. 50 

Coming Around Frying - Pan Glacier Dr. F. A. Scott. 51 

Mt. Adams, seen from the Indian Henry Trail . A. H. Barnes. 51 

Indian Henry's Hunting Ground from South Tahoma Glacier A. H. Denman. 52 

* Southwest Side of Mountain, seen from Indan Henry's A. H. Barnes. 53 

Junction of North and South Tahoma Glaciers A. H. Denman. 54 

Winthrop Glacier and St. Elmo Pass Asahel Curtis. 54 

Portion of Paradise Valley and Tatoosh Range A. H. Barnes. 55 

Eastern Part of Tatoosh Range . A. H. Barnes. 55 

Ice Bridge. Stevens Glacier Dr. F. A. Scott. 56 

Tug of War Asahel Curtis. 56 

Reese's Camp . C. E. Cutter. 59 

Climbing Paradise Glacier Dr. F. A. Scott. 59 

Nisqually Glacier, from Top of Gibraltar Rock Asahel Curtis. 60 

Sluiskin Falls, below Paradise Glacier A. H. Barnes. 61 

Looking across Winthrop Glacier to Steamboat Prow Asahel Curtis. 61 

Fairy Falls, in Goat Lick Basin A. H. Barnes. 62 

* Checkerboard Crevasse, Cowlitz Glacier S. C. Smith. 63 

Paradise Valley and Tatoosh :Mountains A. H. Barnes. 64 

Stevens Canyon, with Mt. Adams in Distance A. H. Barnes. 65 

Mountain Climbers on St. Elmo Pass A. W. Archer. 66 

Passing a big Crevasse on Interglacier Asahel Curtis. 67 

The Mountaineers on Winthrop Glacier Asahel Curtis. 68 

Mountaineers on Carbon Glacier Asahel Curtis. 68 

* Nisqually Glacier, with Its Sources . A. H. Barnes. 69 

Looking North from Cowlitz Chimneys over Cowlitz Glacier .... Charles Bedford. 70 

Measuring the Ice Flow, Nisqually Glacier Asahel Curtis. 71 

One of the Modern Craters Asahel Curtis. 72-73 

Climbing the Cowlitz Cleaver . Asahel Curtis. 72 

Lunching in a Crevasse Asahel Curtis. 73 

Ice - bound Lake, Cowlitz Park S. C. Smith. 74 

Crevasses in Cowlitz Glacier S. C. Smith. 74 

Mazamas Rounding Gibraltar . Rodney L. Glisan. 77 

Climbing the "Chute." West Side of Gibraltar Asahel Curtis. 78 

View of the Summit from Top of Gibraltar A. H. Waite. 79 



ii.i.rsTi; v'l'ioxs 



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LooUiiiii up While (Jhicii-r lo Liiilc TaliDUia I>r. F. A. Scott. 80 

North Peak, or ••Liberty Caii" . A. \V. Arch.-r. 81 

t'lossins a Precii)itous Slope, White Glacier A. W. Archer. 82 

Hydro - Electric Plant at Electron 83 

nuildins Taconia's .\e\v Power Phiiil on the Xisriually (3) George V. Caesar. 84 

Adniiial Peter Rainier 87 

Echo Rock, on West Hraiicii of Carbon ('.lacier A. W. .Archer. 87 

EasL Side of the .Mountain from Suiniuer Land I. H. Fleit. 88 

View North from Mt. Ruth, looking over Grand Park J. 13. Flett. 89 

* Looking over .Moraine Park to Carbon Glacier .\sahel Curtis. 90 

Anemones .Miss .Jessie Kershaw. 90 

.\ 1 l-foot Fir. near .Mineral Lake \. 11. Harnes. 91 

Sunrise in Indian Henry's I'ark A. 11. Harnes. 92 

.\n F]minent Scientist Practices the Simple Life 93 

Floral Carpet in Indian ll(niry"s A. H. Barnes. 93 

.Mountain .Asters A. H. Barnes. 94 

.\lpine Hendock and .Meiiiiiaiii Lilies Mrs. H. A. Towire. 94 

Studying the Phlo.\ J. B. Flett. 97 

Squaw Grass or .Mountain Lily .Miss Jessie Kershaw. 97 

Mosses and Ferns Charles Bedford. 98 

.Avalanche Lilies Asahel Curtis. 99 

* Moraine Park. Sluiskin .Mountains and Moraine Lake .Asahel Curiis. ion 

Canada Dogwood -Miss .Jessie Kershaw. KM) 

The .Mountain from Fox Island Charles Bedford. 101 

Glacial Debris. Winthro)) Glacier Asahel Curtis. 102 

Paradise Valley, with South - Side Route to the Summit .Asahel Curiis. 102 

* Oldest and Youngest Climbers, Gen. Stevens and Jesse McRae .... C. E. Cutter. 103 
P. B. Van Trumi) 103 

* Amphitheater of Carbon Glacier Asahel Curtis. 104 

* Avalanche Falling on Willis Wall.. Photo, Lee Bronson: Copyright, P. V. Caesar. 10.5 
East Side of .Mountain, with Route to Summit over While Glacier.. .Asahel Curtis. 106 

Building Trail on Carbon Glacier .Moraine .Asahel Curtis. 106 

.Mountaineers' Camp in .Moraine Park, overlooking Carbon Glacier. .Asahel Curtis. 107 

Ice Pinnacles, or Serracs, on Carbon Glacier . A. W. Archer. 107 

Ijooking Southeast from Mt. Rose, above Eunice Lake George V. Caesar. 108 

Ix)oking Southwest from .Mt. Rose George V. Caesar. 109 

* S])ray Falls Asahel Curtis. 110 

* The .Mountain from (^reen River Hot Springs C. E. Cutter. 1 1 1 

Returning from the Summit Asahel Curtis. 1 1 1 

MAPS 

Pug(>t Sotind Country and Roads to the :\lountain Inside of Back Cover 

Rainier .National Park Inside of Back Cover 




From above Sluiskin Falls, at 4 p. m., showing (he approach of a storm. Taken same day as preceding view. 




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Cupyright, 190'J, by Asu.liel Curtis 



Lost to the WDrld. 7.5tH( Icct abo\c scu level. 



THE MOUNTAIN THAT WAS ''GOD." 



MOrXT '-HIG SNOAV AND INDIAN TRADITION. 

Age cannot wiihtT hw. nor custom stale 
Her infinite variety. — Antony and Cleopatra. 



THE great inountain fascinates 
u.s by its diversity. It is ;ni 
itispirnt i(tii ;m<l \'t't ;i ridillr In 
all wlu) are tirawii to the luxslerious 
(ti- who love the sublime. Every view 
which the breakinu' clouds vouchsafe 
to us is a surprise. It lun-er becomes 
eniiitiHUiplace. sjivc to llic ('(uiiimni- 
]dace. 

< )](] VirgiTs ^ilie at iiiaidciiid s 
better half — "varium ct mutabilc 
semper feinina" - iniuht h;ivc been 
written of this licklc shape of mvk 
and ice and \<ip()r. One tries vainly, 
year after year, to define it in his 
own mind. The daily. honrl\' clumi^c 
of distance, size and aspect. tri(d<s 
which the Indinn's iikuiiiI ;i in liimI 
idays with the puny creatures swarm- 
ing more ami more about his foot, his 
days of frank' neiu]d)orliness. his 
swift transfornijit ions from smiles to 
anger, his fits of suUenness and with- 





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Crossing a Snou Slope, upper part of .Moraine Park. 



16 



THE MOUNTAIN THAT WAS "GOD" 




Iron and Copper Mountains (right) in Indian Henry's. The top of Pyramid Peak 
shows in the saddle beyond, below Peak Success. 

drawal. all baffle study. Even though we live at it.s base, it is impossible to say 
we know the mountain, so various are the spells the sun casts over this huge 
dome which it is slowly chiseling away with its tools of ice, and which, in 
coming centuries, it will level with the plain. 

We are lovers of the water as well as the hills, out here in this Northwestern 
corner of the Republic. We spend many days — and should spend more — in 
cruising among the hidden bays and park-like islands which make Puget Sound 
the most interesting body of water in America. We grow a bit boastful about 
the lakes that cluster around our cities. Nowhere better than from sea level, 
or from the lakes raised but little above it. does one realize the bulk, the domi- 
nance, and yet the 
grace, of this noble 
peak. Its impres- 
s i V eness, indeed, 
arises in part from 
the fact that it is 
one of the few 
great volcanic 
m u ntains whose 
entire height ma>' 
be seen from tide 
level. Many of us 
can recall views of 
it from Lake Wash- 
ington at Seattle, 
or from American 

Ice Terraces on South Tahonia Glacier. These vast steps are one ot the forniitions seen > [)clU(l\\ <l \ UdK( 

when a glacier moves down a steep and irregular slope. at i a C O HI a , 01' 








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THE MOUNTAIN THAT WAS "GOD" 



from the Sound, which will always 
haunt the memory. 

Early one evening, last summer. 
I went with a friend to Point De- 
fiance, Tacoma's fine park at the 
end of the promontory on which 
the city is built. We drank in re- 
freshment from that scene of broad 
channels and evergreen shores. "We 
watched the gathering colors in the 
West, over the Olympics. As sunset 
approached, we rowed far out 
Northward into the Sound. The 
Western sky became a conflagra- 
tion. Twilight settled upon the bay. 
The lights of the distant town came 
out, one by one, and those of the big 
smelter, near by. became brilliant. 
Xo Turner ever dreamed so glorious 
a picture of sunlight and shade. 
But we were held by one vision. 

Yonder, in the Southeast, tower- 
ing above the lower shadows of har- 
bor and hills, rose a vast pyramid 
of soft flame. The setting sun had 
thrown a mantle of rose pink over 
the ice of the glaciers and the great 
cleavers of rock which buttress the 
mighty dome. The rounded summit 





Mountain Goat, an accidental snap-shot 
at a distance ot 100 feet. 



"Ghost Trees." These white stalks, seen in Indian Henry's and 
Paradise Valley, tell of fires set by careless visitors. 

was warm with beautiful orange light. Soon 
the colors upon its slope changed to deeper 
reds, and then to amethyst, and violet, and 
pearl gray. The sun-forsaken ranges below fell 
away to dark neutral tints. But the fires upon 
the crest burned on, deepening from gold to 
burnished copper, a colossal beacon flaming 
liigh against the sunset purple of the Eastern 
skies. Finally, even this great light paled to 
a ghostly white, as the supporting foundation 
of mountain ridges dropped into the darkness 
of the long Northern twilight, until the snowy 
summit seemed no longer a part of earth, but 



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MUL'NT 'lUG SXOW" AND INDIAN IliMHTlON 



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a veil (if iiii<-;iiiii.\- mist, (•.•luulit up l)y the winds rrom lln' I'.M-ilic jukI lld.ilin- \':iv 
above tlir lil.ii-k sl<y-liiif oT ihc solid ( ";is<'ii<ii's. ih.il 

* * * licavon-sustainiiiK hulwaiK. ir;ii<'(l 
Between thr East and West. 

And when even this ai)i)iii"iti(»n li.id t'adeil. aii<l ilir .Muimiaiii appeared oidy 
as a (lini hulk silhouctliMl upon the niuht. then canic llir mirarlc. ( Icadually. 
the East, licyoiui the j^rcat hills, showed a faitit liLilil. 'I'ln- prolilc o|' the pi'ak 
beeamc iiioi'c dctinite. With no other wai'iiiiiL;-. sudd(id\ IVom iK suiiiniii ihc 
fnll iiiooii shot t'ortli. liULic majestic and <^i-aeioiis. lloodiiiLi the hiwei- world 
with hriuht iiess. Clouds and mounlain I'auij^es alike shoin' with its •rlory. lint 
the great peak h»omed hla(d<ei- and moi-e sidlen. ()nly. on its head, the wide 
crown ot snow gleamed while under the eold rays of the moon. 

Xo wonder that this mouidain (d' chan<;in^' moods. o\ crtoppinLj every othei- 
eminence in the Northwest, answered tlu' i(h'a of (iod io the simple. imai:ina1 ive 
mind of the In- 
dians who hunted 
in the forest on 
its slopes or 
fi s h e d in the 
waters that ebbed 
and tlowed at its 
has e. Primitive 
peoples in every 
land have deified 
superlative mani- 
festations of na- 
ture — the sin I. 
t h e wind, the 
great rivers ami 
w ate rfalls, the 
high mountains. 
By all the tribes 
within sight of its 
snmmii. this pre- 
eminent peak, 
called by them 
Taeoma. Tahoma 
or Tacob, as wlio 
should say "The 
Great Snow, "was 
deemed a power 
to be feared atid 
conciliated. Even 
when the mission- 
aries taught them ^ 

a better taith, they Waterfall over IslanJ of rock, middle of Stevens Glacier. Note the Ice Wall abovi 




MOINI- I'.K; S.\()\V and INDIAN 'IK A 1 HIION 



23 



moiirilniii ill siipcr- 
stiliotis reverence — 

,111 ;i\\c lli;il still li;is 

power t(» silciici' their 
' "rivilizeil '" ;iii(l \ery 
Ulll'Olll.llll ie cIcSCI'IkI- 
.•II I Is. 

The I'li-jvl Sduiid 
ti"ibes. wilti llie \ ak- 
iiiijis, Kiickitjits ;iii(l 

111 hei's li\iliL;- just !)('- 

>()ii(| the Cascades, 
h;i(l sultst;iiiti;ill\- the 
s a in e lanyuaye and 
heliefs. thouLih diifer- 
ini;- ill physicil lypo. 
East oJ' tile rnime. 
they lived by the 
c h ii s e. They were 
great horsemen and 
famous I'uiniers, a breed of litlu 





Ntiiicral l.akc and the MoiiiUain. 



Storm King I'cak and Mineral l.akc, viewed (roni near Mineral Lake Inn. 

iipstandinu'. handsome nn'ii. Here on tlie 
('nast wei-e the "DifTfjer" 
1 lilies, who subsisted chiefly 
by s p e a r i II l: salmon and 
diii'trine: chniis. Their stooped 
fi«iiires. fhit faces, downcast 
eyes mid h>w mentality re- 
flected the life they led. Con- 
irasiiiiL: their lunivy bodies 

wilh llleir feeble IcLiS. wllicll 

urew shorler with disuse, a 
Tacunia liniiiorisl last sum- 
mer uravely proved to a 
party of Engli.sh visitors that 
in a few years more, had not 
(he white man seized their 
tisliiiii: .i:r( Minds, the Siwashes 
would have had no legs at all. 
Stolid as he .seemed to the 
whites, the Indian of the 
Sound was not without his 
touch of poetry. lie had that 
imauinative curiosity which 
marked the native American 




o 



U 



J 
i 

■jr. 

u 



i 



-3 
u 

T3 



o 



MOUNT lUG SXOW" AND INDIAN TRADITION 



25 




Cowlitz Glacier, Crevasses caused by flexure in its bed 



everywhere. Tic was ever peering: into the causes of thiiitrs. and seeing the 
supernatural in tlic world around him. * 

To the 'jreat Snow Mountain the Indians made t're(iuent pilgrimages, for 
they thought this king of the primeval wild a divinity to be reckoned with. 
They dreaded its anger, seen in the storms about its head, the thunder of its 
avalanches, and tlic volcanic flashes of wliich their traditions told. They 
courted its favoi-. syndjolized in the wild flowers that bloomed on its slope, and 
the tall grass that fed the mowich, or deer. 

As tlu\v ascendc(l the v;isl i-idgcs. the grandeur about them spoke of the 



* Among those who have studied the Puget Sound Indians most synipatheticaUy is the 
Rev. Mr. Hylebos of Tacoma. He came to the Northwest in 1870, when the Federal census 
gave the sawmill hamlet of Tacoma a white population of seventy-three, and while the 
Indians hereabout numbered thousands. In those days, says Father Hylebos, the Tacoma 
tideflats, now filled in for mills and railway terminals, were covered each autumn with the 
canoes of Indians, spearing salmon for their winter's supply. It was no uncommon thing 
to see at one time on Commencement Bay 600 boats, 1,800 fishermen. This veteran worker 
among the Siwashes (French, sauvages) first told me the myths that hallowed the mountain 
for every native, and the true meaning of the beautiful Indian word "Tacoma." He knew 
well all the leaders of the generation before the railways: Sluiskin, the Klickitat chief who 
guided Stevens and Van Trump up to the snow line when they made the first ascent in 1870; 
Stanup. chief of the Puyallups; Kiskax. head of the Cowlitz tribe; Angeline, the famous 
daughter of Chief Seattle, godfather of the city of that name, and many others. 



IG 



THE MOUNTAIN THAT WAS "GOD" 



m o u 11 tain god. 
There w e r e 
groves of trees he 
must have plant- 
ed, so r d e r 1 y 
were they set out. 
The lakes of the 
loft y V a 1 leys 
see m e d calmer 
than those on the 
])rairies b e 1 o av. 
the f 1 i a g c 
bright er. The 
song of the 
waterfalls h e r e 
was sweeter than 
the music of the 
tamahna was men , 
their Indian sor- 
cerers. The many 
small meadows 
close to the 
snow - line, c a r- 

peted in deepest green and spread with flowers, were the gardens of the 
divinity, tended by his superhuman agents. Xo wood in ancient Greece was 
ever peopled by hamadryads so real as the little gods whom the Indian saw in 
the forests watered bv streams from Tacoma's glaciers. 




Paradise River, below its Glacier, with Little Tahonia in distance. 




y 




fi 




# .^v ^■ 






Steam Caves in one ot the Craters. The residual heat of the evtinct \'olcano canses steam and Sases to escape from 
vents in the rims of the two small Craters. Alpinists often spend a night in the (;a\es thns formed in the Snow. 







West Side ot ihe Sunimit. seen troin Tahoma Fork of the Nisgually. Note the whilenesslof the GlaciallWater 




o 



73 



MOUNT -IMC SNOW" AXD INDIAN lii A I HIK )N 




Great Rock on the Ridfte separating the North and South Tahoma Glaciers, with Tahoina I*ork of the Nisgually 

se\eral miles bclou. Seen ridht of center on page 2H. 

Countless snows had fallen since the mountain ^od created and hcautified 
this home of his, when one day he grew angry, and in his w i-ath showed terrible 
tongues of fire. Thus he ignited an immense tir forest on ihc south side of 
the peak. When his anger subsided, the flames passed, and the land they left 
bare became covered with blue grass and wild flowers — a great sunny country 
where, befoi-e, the dark forest had been. Borrowing a word from llic Frcndi 
coureurs des bois who came with the Hudson's Bay Company, the later 
Indians sometimes called this region "the Big Brule"; and to this day some 
Americans call it the same. l'>ut tor the Big Brule the Indians had. from 
ancient times, another name, connected with their ideas of religion. It was 
their Saghalie Illahe, the "Land of Peace," Heaven. Our name, "Paradise 
Valley," given to the beautiful open vale on the south slope of the mountain, 
is an English equivalent. 

Here Avas the same bar to violence which religion has erected in many lands. 
The Hebrews had their "Cities of Refuge." The pagan ancients made every 
altar an asylum. ^Mediaeval Christianity constituted all its churches sanctuaries. 
Thus, in lawless ages, the hand of vengeance was stayed, and the weak were 
protected. 



30 



THE MOUNTAIN THAT WAS -GOD- 



J*-*--. 







Wind Swept Trees on North Side, the last below the line of Eternal Snow 



So. too. the Indian 
trad ition ordained 
this liomc of rest and 
refngc. Indian cus- 
tom was an eye for 
an (\v('. Itut on gain- 
ing this m u n tain 
liaven the pursued 
was safe from his 
pursuer, the slayer 
might not be touched 
l»y his victim's kin- 
d r e d. W hen he 
crossed its border, 
the warrior laid down 



his arms. Criminals 
and cowards, too, were often sent here by the chiefs to do penance. 

The mountain divinity, with his under-gods, figures in much of the Siwash 
folk-lore, and the "Land of Peace" is often heard of. It is through such 
typical Indian legends as that of the Greedy Hiaqua Hunter that we learn how 
large a place the great Mountain filled in the thought of the aboriginees. 

This myth also explains why an Indian could never be persuaded to make 
the ascent, farther than the snow line. Even so shrewd and intelligent a 
Siwash as Sluis- 
kin. with all his 
keenness for 
' ' Boston chika - 
min," the white 
man's money, re- 
fused to accom- 
pany Stevens and 
Van Trump, in 
1870; and indeed 
gave them up as 
doomed when 
they defied the 
M u n t a i n ' s 
wrath and start- 
ed for the sum- 
mit in spite of 
liis warnings. 

The hero of 
the Hiaqua Myth ' ^'^ 

IS the Indian Rip Exploring an ice Ca\e. Paradise Glacier. 





\'ieu i>f IV-.iU Success and West side nf the Mountain from Indian Henr>'s. "ith reHection. 




1fciS*!Wrtfti^*^i *' 



Rounded Cone of Mt. St. Helens, seen from Indian Henry's, 50 miles aw 



ay. 



MOUNT iUG SNOW AND INDIAN IKAhl IION 



33 



\';. I. Wiiikl.'. • 
Crazy for liiaqua, 

(ir slirll iiiiiiiey, 
;iMil |i(i-sua(lod by 

Moosinoos,!!"' <*lk 
<li\iiiil y. liis own 
f olcMi. that on top 
of Ihc mountain 
he w (t n I (I find 
tri'cat .st()i-(j of it, 
he (•liiiil)od to the 
sninniit. Here he 
riiiiMil three ])\ir 
rocks, one of 
wliieli looked like 
li i s f r i e n <] ! y 
Moosnioos. Uv(,'r- 
turninfr this after 
lonjr difr^'ing, he 
uncovered many 
sti-inL:s n|' liiaqna 
— enoncrh to make 
him the richest 

iif liicll. liul lit' 

meanly seized it 
all. leaving no 
1 hank-ofl'erinf; to 
tlie tamahnawas 
powers. There- 
upon the whole 
earth shook with 
a mighty convul- 
sion, and the Mountain shot forth terrible fires and poured streams of water 
(lava?) down its sides. 

Panic-stricken at the results of his greed, the man 1hi-ew down his load of 
treasure to propitiate the angry deity; and then fell on the ground and entered 
the land of sleep. Long, long after, he aAvoke to find himself far from the 
summit, in a pleasant country of beautiful meadows, carpeted with flowers, 
and musical with the song of birds. He had grown very old. with snow-white 
hair falling to his shoulders. Recognizing the scene about him as Saghalie 
Illahe, he sought his old tent. It was where he had left it. and there, too, was 
his "klootchman," or wife, grown old. like himself. Back they went to their 
home on the bank of the Cowlitz, where they spent the rest of their days in 
great honor. For his tribesmen recognized that the aged Indian's heart had 




The Muuiitain, seen from top of the Cascades, with party startiniS due West 

for Paradise Valley. 



* See Prof. W. D. Lyman's papers on the Indian legon<is. in "Mazama," Vol. 2, and "The 
Mountaineer," Vol. 2; also Winthrop's "Canoe and Saddle." 



o4 



THE MOrXTAlX THAT WAS -GOD" 



V 





Ptarmigan, the Grouse of the ice-fields. Unlike its neighbor, the Mountain Goat, 

this bird is tame, and may sometimes be caught by hand. In winter, 

its plumage turns from brown to white. 

crude but very positive mind. Ever by his side the 
Power that dwelt on Tacoma. protecting and aiding 
to destruction. Knowing nothing of true worship, 
genee could imagine God only in things either the most 
terrifying; and the more we know the Mountain, the 
understand why he deemed the majestic peak a factor 
infinite force that could, at will, bless or destroy. 



been m a r v e 1 ously 
softened and his mind 
enriched by his ex- 
p e r i e n c e upon the 
mountain. Thus he 
became the most re- 
spected of all the 
tamahnawas men of 
his time. 

Such legends show 
the Northwestern In- 
dian, like savages 
everywhere, mingling 
his conception of 
Deity with his ideas 
of the evil one. Sym- 
bolism pervaded his 

old Siwash felt the 
him, or leading him 
his primitive intelli- 
beautiful or the most 
more easily we shall 

of his destinv — an 




c^ •» 




y 



i 




(Climbing the Ice Terraces of \\ inthrop Glacier. 




Portion of Spras Park, uitli North Side view o( the Mountain, showing Observation Rock and Timber Line. 

Klevation of (Camera. 7.(HKI feel. 




A perilous position on the edge of a great Crevasse. Cowlitz Glacier, near end of Cathedral Rocks. 




LancasU f 



On Pierce County's splendid scenic roiul l<> llu- M(niiil;iiii. rasslnfi Oliop X'ullcy. 

II. 

THE NATIONAL PARK AND HOW To UKMW IT. 

There are plenty of higher mountains, but it is the decided isolation — the absolute 
standing alone in lull majesty of its own mightiness — that forms the attraction of 
Rainier. * * * It is no squatting giant, ])erched on the shoulders of other 
mountains. From Puget Sound, it is a sight for the gods, and one feels in the presence 
of the gods. — Paul Fountain: "The Seven Eaglets of the West" (London, 1905). 




THE first explorers to climb the .Moiiiilniii. forty years ago. were compelled 
to make their way from Puyet Sound through the dense growths of one 
of the world 's greatest 
forests, over lofty ridges and 
deep canyons, and across per- 
ilous glacial torrents. The 
hardships of a journey to the 
timber line w-ere more form- 
idable than any difficulties to 
be encountered above it. 

Even from the East 1lu' 
first railroad to the Coast had 
.just reached San I^'i'anciseo. 
Thence the travclrr eame 
north to the Sound l)y boat. 
The now busy cities of Seattle 
and Tacoma wci'e. one. an 

ambitious village of 1.107 in- 
habitants; the other, a saw- 
mill, with seventy i)ersons liv- "- 

ing around it. They were Cowlit? Chimneys, seen from basin below Frying- Pan Glacier. 




38 



THE MOUNTAIN THAT WAS -GOD" 







On the way out from Tacoma the Automobilist sees many scenes like this Old Road near Spanaway Lake 

frontier settlements, outposts of civilization ; but civilization paid little 
attention to them and their great Mountain, until the railways, some years 
later, began to connect them witli the big wm-ld of people and markets beyond 
the Rockies. 

How dift'ereut the case today! Six transcontinental railroads noAv deliver 
their trains in the Puget Sound cities. These are : The Northern Pacific, which 




Mystic Lake and Sluiskin Mmintains. 



Till-: XA'I'IOXAI. I'AItK AM) HOW TO REACH IT 



39 




Automobile Party abo\c Nisgiuilly (Canyon, Pierce County Kciad lo ihc Moiintain. 



was the first trunk line to reach the Sound; the Great Northern; the Chicago, 
lini-lino-ton & Quincy ; the Chicauo, Milwaukee & Pupret Sound; the Oregon & 
Wasiiington (Union Pacific), and the Canadian Pacific. A seventh, the North 
Coast, will soon be added. 

Arriving in Seattle or Tacoma, the traveler has his choice of quick and en- 
joyable routes to the IMountain. He may go by automobile, leaving either city 
ill the iiioniing. After traveling one of the best and most inlcresting roads in 
llic country — the first and only otic in fact, to reach a Lilacicr — lie may take 

luncheon at noon 
.six thousand feet 
higher, in Para- 
dise Park, clost> 
1 () the line of 
eternal snow. Or 
he may go by 
Ihe comfortable 
trains of the Ta- 
coma Eastern 
' Alilwaukee sys- 
tem j to A.shford. 
fifty-six miles 
iVom Tacoma. 
and then by au- 
tomobile stages 
over a perfect 
road to the Xa- 

Prof. O. D. .\llen's Cottage, in the Forest Reserye, »yhere the former 'S ale professor 

has for years studied the Flora o{ the Mountain. tlOnai 1 .ll'K I 1111 




40 



THE MOUNTAIN THAT WAS "GOD" 




One mile of Carbon Glacier, where it has cut its way through the Mountains. 
Sluiskin Mountains on right. Mother Mountains on left. 



at Longmire 
Springs (altitude 
2,730 feet). 
Lunching there, 
he may then go 
on, afoot, by au- 
tomobile over the 
new government 
road, or on horse- 
back over a ro- 
mantic trail, to 
Paradise. 

Either of these 
ways of reaching 
the Mountain 
will be a happy 
choice, for each 
of them leads 
through a coun- 
try of uncommon 
charm. Each of 
them, too, will 
carry the visitor 
up from the 
Sound to the 
great and beau- 



tiful region on 
the southern slopes which includes the Nisqually canyon. Paradise valley, the 
Tatoosh range, the Stevens canyon, and Indian Henry's Hunting Ground. 




%^- 



Camp on St. Elmo Pass, North side of the Wedge, between Winthrop Glacier and Interglacier. Elevation, 9,000 feet. 

Winthrop Glacier and the fork of White River which it feeds are seen in distance below. The man is 

Maj. E. S. Ingraham, a veteran explorer of the Mountain, after whom Ingraham Glacier is named. 




Little Mashcll Falls, near Katnn\lllc 







Old Stage Road to Longmire Springs and the National Park Inn. showing the tall, clear trunks o( the giant Firs 



THK XATIOXAl. I'.MCK AM. Il»)\\ TO UKACIl 11 



43 




I'll'- 111 liiiii st;i> .1 (l.iy or n in<»iitli. 
Il\riy iiiniiinii i,r th,. liiiif will III- cniw-tlcii 
witli <-iijuyiiiriit. Mr iii;iy i-.iiiti-nl lnms«'lf 
witli Miiiw li.illiii'^ his i-<iiii|i:iiiiiiiis ill iiiid- 

>;illNllir|\ ,||ii| willi |.in|<ili._r (l(i\\ II tVidll Allil 
N'istjl (•■icV.-ltidll. li.lMKI fcrl I nil tllr lii'J 
\isi|l|;illy y-jjlciri- ill till' (•;ill\<ill wliicli it 

li.is cut i'di- itself. ;iii(| ii|i its steep slopes to 
its iicvr iicld. Ill) till' siiiiiinit. < »r In- ni.'iy 
ixpliirc tliis wlidlr rcjidii ;it jrisiiri-. cliiiili- 
Iiil: h;ii-i| iiiiiiiiit:iiii tniils, olit ;i iiiiiiii' iiiiiLriiili- 
criii views, wnrkin'j up (i\er tlie (.rlacicrs. 
stutl.\ing tlieif crevasses, iee eaves and How. 

lie limy even sc;ile tlle pealc. llll«lei- the safe 
le;i(|('rslii p lit' I'.x pc!'ii'iii-i'(| Liiii'les. lie may 
waiidei' at will uxei- the \ast platform li-ft 
by tlie pi'ehistorie explosinii wliicli tr\iii- 
eated the g;reat edtie. .hkI perhaps spend a 
iiiaht of seiisat imial iinvelly .ind diseom- 
lorl ' ill a big steam cave, iiiider the snow, 
inside a ei-atei-. 

The south side has the advanta«re of otYer- 
iuiz th(^ wildest alpine sport in eondiination with a well-appointetl hnlel as a 



Government Road in the Forest Reserve. 




Ingraham Glacier eniplying into Cowlitz Glacier, over an 800-foot fall, one of ihe finest ice cascades on the Mountain. 



44 



THE MOUNTAIN THAT WAS 'GOD' 




U f li 



Copyright, 19u9. by Asahel Curtis 
On the Summit, showing Columbia's Crest, the great Mound of Snow that has, most curiously, 
formed on this wide wind-swept platform. 

base of operations. Hence the majority of visitors to the ^Mountain know only 
that side. Everybody should know it. too ; but should also know that it is by 
no means the only side to see. 

One may, of course, work around from the Nisqually canyon and Paradise. 
east or west, to the other glaciers and "parks." It is quite practicable, if not 
easy, to make the trip eastward from Camp of the Clouds in Paradise Park, 
crossing Paradise, Stevens and Cowlitz glaciers, and thus to reach the huge 
White glacier on the east side and Winthrop and Carbon glaciers on the north. 
Every summer sees more and more visitors making this wonderful journey. 




Lea\ing the National l*ark Inn at l.ongmire Springs (elevation, 2,7.M) feel) tor the Summit. 




View Northward from lop of Pinnacle Peak, 7,200 feet elevation, to Paradise Valley, Nisgually Glacier and 

Gibraltar Roclc, eicKt miles away 




•^i 







^^ ^t 








.A.I 



>kUi«'*' 





LooUins Northeast trom slope of Pinnacle Peak, across Paradise. Stevens. Cowiilz and Hryinit Pan Glacier*. 

These two views form virtually a panorama 



\ Tiv- 



Till': XATIONAI. I'AKK AM) IIOW iO i;i:\(ll IT 



49 



lk^ 






«, 1 ir r i4 1 JM 


" "^ik .^Htek 






iEeKc^ ''C 


^B^^^lka-'* ' ^L' ^^^^^^^tSBB^^^^fS^ k£.^^u^WL' ^^^tfPs 1^I^^^B^^M^9sir 


-^n»ib^^.^ 


?t:&^»/V'*E^' 


H^S 



On the Government Road a mile above Longmire's. 



Another way to roach the great north side, and perhaps the most practic- 
able way, especially for parties which carry camp e<|uipiiiriit. is l>y a Northern 
Pacific train over the Carbonado branch to Fairfax. This is on Carbon river, 
live miles from the nortliAvest corner of the National Park. Thence the traveler 
will go by horse or afoot, over a safe mountain trail, to Spray Park, the fascinat- 
ing region between Carbon and North jMowich glaciers. Standing here, on such 
an eminence as Fay Peak or Eagle Cliff, he may have views of the Mountain 
and its noblest 
features tliat will 
a thousand times 
repay the labor 
of attainment. 

A visit to this 
less known side 
involves the ne- 
cessity of pack- 
ing an outfit. But 
arrangements for 
liorses and pack- 
ers are easily 
made, and each 

\ ear an lliereaS- Glacier Xable on Winthiop Glacier. This phenomenon is due to the nultine of the 

IlliX number of glacier, and the consequent lowering of its level save where sheltered by the 

rock. Under the Sun's rays, these "tables" incline more and more 
parties make to the Somh. until they linally slide oir their pedestals. 





^^«8MK^ 


' 1 


^ 

^ ^ 







50 



THE MOUNTAIN THAT WAS "GOD" 




Snout of NisquaUy Glacier, with Government Road and Bridge. The Ice Front here 

is 500 to 600 feet high. Elevation of river flowing forth belou 

is 4,000 feet above sea le\el. 



S; p r a y Park 

their headquar- 
ters. From there 

they go soutli. 

over the west 

side glaciers, or 

east, across the 

Carbon an d 

t h r o n g h the 

great White 

river country. 

They camp on 

the north side 

of the Sluiskin 

mountains, i n 

Moraine Park. 

and there have 

ready access to 

Carbon and 

AVinthrop gla- 
ciers, with splendid views of the vast precipices that form the north face of the 

Monntain. Thence they climb east and south over the AVinthrop and AVhite 

glaciers. They visit the 
beautiful Grand Park 
and Summer Land, and 
either make the ascent 
to the summit from 
"the AA^edge," over the 
long ice slope of the 
AVhite glacier, or con- 
tinue around to the Par- 
adise country and Long- 
mire Springs. 

The west side has 
been less visited than 
any other, but there is 
a trail from the North 
]\I o w i c h to the Nis- 
quaUy, and from this 
adventurous explorers 
reach North and South 
Mowich and Puyallup 
glaciers. No one has 
.,, ,. ^ vet climbed the Moun- 

>% ashington 1 orrents, a series of falls seen from the new Government 

Road to Paradise. tain ovcr tliosG glaciers. 




Till-: XATIOXAI. I'AKK AM) IIOW TO REACH IT 



51 



or t' r II HI I lie 

luti'th siilc. A 

view rfiiiii ;iiiy 

(if tlif t i';iils will 

ex pi ;i i II w liy . 

The ji'reat fork 

spines arc mkut 

ju'ecipitoiis I li.iii 

t'lsewlu'i'c. 1 li (• 

l:I .Meiers inor-e 

lii'dkt'ii : ntid 1 lie 

siiniiiiit is friiiil- 

ed on either side 

l)y a huge para- 

pcl of rock wliicli liiii-]s (Icfinticc ;it ;iiiyt hiiii; sliorl of an airslii|i. I )oiilit less. \\f 

shall some day travel to Crater Pi'ak hy aeroplanes. Init until these vehicles an* 

eipiipjied with runners for landing- and staiMini:' on ilu' siiow. \vc sliall do best 

to plan our ascents from the soiitli or east side. 

I have thus briefly point(Hl out the favorite routes followed in exploring the 
National I'ai'k. The time is fast ap[)roacliing: when it will he ;i 1 riily national 




(^omint iinmiid F ryiii)'- run (Jiacicr. 




Mt. Adams, seen from the Indian Henry Trail seems a replica of Rainicr-Tacoma. as viewed from the west. 

The distance is about forty miles. 




a 
c 



o 



c c 

<U 3 



2 - 

c "o 

O C 

?- s 

c u 



•?! 



a> 



0* 



a:5 
o. . 



o >. 



-01 ^ 



O 

o 



o -s 



3 
O 
C/! 



e : 
1 - 

Q. a 
a eu 

■i O 
•n S 
c o 

3 ■" 

C . 

C B 
= S. 

X sr 



r.H 




■3 
C 
S 
C 



3 
C 



■3 



3 
C 



54 



THE MOUNTAIN THAT WAS 'GOD" 







ffpii^ 



Junction of North and South Tahoma Glaciers. The main ice stream thus formed, seen in the foreground, feeds Tahoma 

Fork'of the Nisqually river. The Northern part of North Tahoma Glacier, seen in the distance 

beyond the wedge of rocks, feeds a tributary of the Puyallup 

recreation ground, well known to Americans in every State. The coming of 
new railways to Puget Sound and the development of new facilities for reach- 
ing the Mountain make this certain.* 



*For details as to rates for transportation, accommodations and guides, see Note at end 
of this chapter. 




Winthrop Glacier and St. Elmo Pass, wilh Kuth Mounlain (llic \\'cd!<c) on right and Sour- Dough Mountains on left. 



TFll-: NATION. \L I'AUK AND HOW To KliACH I'l" 



55 




I'orlion of Paradise Park and the i ainnsli Kaiitic 



l'",\ffy slt'p to- 
wn I'll iii;ikiii'_: the 
I'ai'k iiiiiiT ;iiM't's- 
sil)l(' is a piiljlit- 
bcin'fit. Kxpci'- 

iniccil 1 l',l \ rlcl'S 
a II I I Ml I) II M I ;| i II 

(• I i III li f r s w li (• 
li ;i \ f visiti'd il 
unite ill dcclariiiL;' 

its scclirry nil 

(' i| n a 1 I'd ill t In- 
rnited States a ml 
Ullsii|-pass<Ml ;iiiy- 
w li (' V (' ill I li (■ 
Wdi'Id. 

r n t i 1 recent 
y Cell's i t \v a s 
known only hy 
the liardy f e \v 
wlio deliiilit in 

doin^ii ditticult things, lint that day lias passed. 'I'lie \aliie id' tlie I'iirk tu the 
whole American people is coming more and inoi-c to l)e appreciated. Itoili hy 
them and hy their official representatives. Whih- ('oiifrress lias ih'all less 
liberall\- witli this than with the uthei- ei-,.;ii .\;ii ion.d l';irks. what it has 

appro|>riat I'd has 
heeli well s|)enl 

in liiiildiiiiyr an in- 
V ,1 1 II a I) 1 e road. 
This is a eoiit inn- 
atioM of the well- 
mnde highway 
111 a i n 1 a i n ed hy 
Pierce County 
t'r II III T a c oiii a . 
wli i eh passes 
til roll eh a de- 
li 'j-li 1 t'l 1 1 country 
of partly wooded 
prairies and up 
the heavily for- 
ested slopes to 
Ihe edge of the 
Forest Reserve. 
These roads 

Eastern end of the Tatoosh Range. liaVC pUt it With- 




56 



THE MOUNTAIN THAT WAS 'GOD' 



in the power of 
automobilists 
from all parts of 
the Coast to reach 
the grandest of 
American moun- 
tains and the 
largest glaciers in 
the United States 
south of Alaska. 
They connect, at 
Tacoma, with ex- 
cellent roads 
from Seattle and 
other cities on 
the Sound, as 
well as from 
Portland and 
points farther 
south. The 
travel from these 
cities has already 
justified the con- 
struction of the 
roads, and is in- 
creasing every 
year. Even from 
California many 
automobile par- 
ties visit the 'ioL: 

Mountain. 

Persons who 
come by rail may, as I have said. 




Ice Bridge, Stevens Glacier 



choose between the train service of the Tacoma 

Eastern Railway 
and a trip by au- 
tomobile. For 
those who do not 
come in their own 
cars, a line of 
automobile stages 
from Tacoma has 
been established, 
giving regular 
" ' and comfortable 

Tug of War between teams picked from the feminine contingent of the Mountaineers. "^ ' ct II Sp O r Id I 




n 



a. 



O 




TIIK NATIOXAI, I'AUK AXI) HOW TO IJKAf'H IT 



59 




Reese's Camp, which his piittons ha\ c poetically called "Camp of the Clouds." A tent hotel on a ridfte in Paradise Park, 

overlooking Nisgually Glacier. This is the usual starting; point of parlies for the 

Stinimit o\er the Soulh-sidc route, \ ia Gihra'tar. 



tlail\' lo Loiigiiiirc Spriiii;.s. jiiid offcrini:' niic of llic most ciijux jihK' se-L-nie trips 
to be had anywlicM-c. 

Tile most iiiipdi'taiit iii(i\'i'iiii'iit tdwai'il iiiakiiiL; the .Muiiiil;i in hcitci' Uimwii 
and inoiT at'ccssihlc lias just hccii inauLiiiralcd. witli ^ood ixMinisc nl' suc- 
cess. It is pf(M)()S('d to 



extend the new govern- 
ment road. How reaching 
Paradise Park, to tlie 
other "parks" on all sides 
of the peak. The under- 
taking is of such im])()rt- 
ance that it will doubtless 
receive prompt approval 
and proper support from 
Congress. 

Congressional action foi- 
the openiiii: of this great 
alpine area to public use 
began in 1899. A tract 
•Mizhti'en miles square, to 
be known as "Ranier 
National Park." * was 
w i t hd I'a \v n f i"o m t h e 




Climbing Paradise Glacier. 



* For some years. Congress and the Interior Department speUed it "Ranier"! A weU- 
known Congressman from Seattle put them straight, and it lias since been officially "Rainier 
National Park." 



t 







3 

z 

c 

C 

s 

c 
•a 



o 
o 



THIO XATIONAI, I'AKK AM) HOW To KKACII IT 



61 



L>,1 Ki.ilni) ncl'rs ul' lllr 

Kiu-i'sl Ucsci-\i'. |irc 

\i(iusly d'cjil I'd. 'rill' 

,'il'i';i llius set ;ii>;irl 

fill' till' rllJi'X llirlll III 

till' pi'iiplr w.'is ;il- 

I'raily know 11 tn fii- 

thnsiasts .iml i'\|>li>r- 

cl's ,'is (ilir of the 

world's Lit'r.'i! wiiii- 

di'l'l ,1 tids. Ill iMil 

•laiiu's Ii(»iiL:iiiii'i'. ;i 

prospcclui-. Ii.id liiiill 

,'i ti'.'iil t'l'itiii ^'l■llll 

o\vv Maslii'll iiiiiuii 

tain and up llu' Nis 

(piall.v I'ivri' In iM'ar 

Pi'airie. Tliis lir rx- 

t(Midod in 18S4 to lln' 

spot now known as 

Lon^' ni i re SpritiLis. 

atnl tllrilci' ll|i tllr 

Xis(iually ami I'ai'a- 

disc rivci's lo tiu' I'c- 

gionnow ralli'd i*ai'a- 

dise I*at'k. Part of 

this ti'ail was widrii- 

I'll lalrr iiil o a wa^on 

road, used for many 

years by persons travelinu' to the Paradise connti-y. oi' seeking licallh at the 

I'rmark'ahli' iiiiiu'i'a! spi'itiLis on tlir trai-t wliirli ihr Longniii'cs anpiii'ril I'voin 

the government before tlic establishment of the Forest TJesei've. 




Sluiskiii Falls, 150 Feet, jusl below Paradise Glacier 




Looking across Winthrop Glacier from Avalanche Camp, on the East side ol Carbon Glacier, to Steamboat Prow 
(the Wedge) and St. Elmo Pass. Elevation of Camera, about S,50() feet. 



62 



THE MOUNTAIN THAT WAS 'GOD' 



The Longmire road, rough as it 
was. long remained the best route to 
the Mountain, but in 1903 the late 
Francis W. Cushman, representative 
from this State, persuaded Congress 
to authorize the survey and construc- 
tion of a better one. AYork was not 
begun. hoAvever. until ]906. The 
yearly appropriations have been 
small, and total only $183,000 to the 
end of 1909. 

The road, as now open to Paradise 
valley, is a monument to the en- 
gineering skill of Mr. Eugene Rick- 
secker. United States Assistant Engi- 
neer, in local charge of the work. Over 
its even floor yon go from the west 
boundary of the Forest Reserve up 
the north bank of the Nisqually river, 
as far as the foot of its glacier. 
Crossing on the bridge here, you 
climb up and up, around the face of 
a bluff known as Gap Point, where a 
step over the retaining wall would 
mean a sheer drop of a thousand feet 
into the river below. Thus you wind 
over to the Paradise river and up 
through its canyon to the broad and 
beautiful valley of the same name 
above, until you reach Camp of the 
Clouds and its picturesque tent hotel. 
The road has brought you a zig-zag 
journey of twenty-four miles to cover 
an air-line distance of twelve and a 
gain in elevation of 3,800 feet. It is 
probably unique in its grades. It has 
no descents. Almost everywhere it 
is a gentle climb. Below Longmire 
Springs the maximum grade is 2.5 
per cent., and the average, 1.6 per cent. Beyond, the grade is steeper, but 
nowhere more than 4 per cent. 

The alignment and grades originally planned have been followed, but only 
one stretch, a mile and a (piarter. has yet been widened to the standard width 
of eighteen feet. Lacking money for a broader road, the engineers built the 
rest of it twelve feet wide. They wisely believed that early opening of the 




:.-"^->>:*^?^Ss?-^-^_o 



Fairy Falls in Goat Lick Basin. This series of waterfalls 
has. a drop of several hundred feet. 



THE NATIONAL I'\I;K' WI) II()\V TO REACH IT 



63 



I'diitr Idi* vehicles to 
l',ii;iilist'. rvcii though 
tlir r(i;i(l III' less lllilll 
st;iiHl;ii'tl wiiltli, wduld 
serve Ihe puhlic !>> 
making' the I'.ii-k hel- 
ter kii(»\vii. ;iii(l thus 
arouse iuteresl in iii;i k- 
iii'.;' it si ill more .u-ees- 
sihle. It will i'e(|uife 
about $60,000 to eoiii- 
plete the roacl to Stand- 
ard width, and make 
it t liofoiiL;hly seeui'e. 

The next step in 
o|ienini:' iho National 
r.-ii'k to ])nlilie use 
should he the cii'i'vinL; 
out of Mr. R i e k - 
seeker's line plan for a 
road around the ^Foun- 
tain. His new map of 
the Parle, printed at 
the end (lit his vohune. 
sluiws the i-onte pro- 
posed. Leavinu' the 
present I'n.-id neai- 
Chi-istine Falls, helow 
the Xis(pially glacier. 
he woidd dniihle hack 
over the hills to Indian cnPMiKhi. ]:«•:<. by s. c. .-^muh 

HI I , • (Checkerboard Crevasses on lower Cowlitz Glacier, with Basalt Cliffs and Cowlitz 

e n I \ s 1 1 n II t 1 n <i' ,. , . . i ■ , i- i • i 

^ Park above, and Little I ahonia in distance. 

rrfiinnd. theiiee drop- 

piim into the canyon of Tahonia Fork, clind)in^ ii|) to St. Andrew "s I'ark, and 
so worUint:' round to the IMowich frlaeiers. Spray Falls and the u;i-eat "parks" 
of the north side. The snout of each glacier would he reache(| in turn, and 
the luLih pleateans which the ulaciers have left would he visitecl. 

Crossing ^loraine I'ark and Winthro]) glacier's old hed. the i-oad would 
ascend to Gi'and Pai-k and the Soui* - T~)oui:li country — a region nnsurpassecl 
anywhere on the ]\I(nintain for the hreadth and grandeur of its views. ]More 
descents, climbs and detoui-s would bring it to the foot of White glacier, and 
thence through Summer Land and Cowlitz Park, and westward to a junction 
with the existing road in Paradise Park. Its elevation would range between 
four and seven thousand feet above the sea. The route, as indicated on the 
map, suggests very i)lainly the engineering feats involved in hani^ino- roads on 
these steep and deeply-carved slopes. 




.^:V^^^^ 



66 



THE MOUNTAIN THAT WAS -GOD" 



y*!*^,^ • 



n#- 







Mountain Climbers on St. Elmo Pass. North side of the Wedge, 
from upper side of the Pass. Elevation, 9,000 feet. 



View taken 



Between eighty and 
a hundred miles of 
construction work 
would be required, 
costing approximate- 
ly $10,000 a mile. 
Including the comple- 
tion of the present 
road to s t a n d a r d 
width. Congres's will 
thus have to provide 
a round million if it 
wishes to develop the 
full value of this vast 
wonderland. I shall 
iKtt use any of my 
little space in trying 
to prove that this 
expenditure is worth 
while. Every Con- 
gressman who makes 
the trip over the new 
r o a d already built 
will know it, and 
know why. Such a 
r o a d would justify 
the Congress which 
authorizes it, immor- 
talize the engineers 
who build it, and 
lionor the nation that 
owns it. 



NOTE. 

Rates, Accommodations, Guides, Etc.— The fare via the Tacoma Eastern Railway 
from Tacoma to the Mountain is $6 for the round trip, including the automobile-stage 
ride over the new government road from Ashford to Longmire's and return. Tickets 
are good for the season. Parties of ten or more, traveling on one ticket, $5 per capita. 
A week-end ticket, Saturday to Monday, is sold at $5. 

Automobile stages sealing ten passengers leave the office of the De Lape Tours 
Company, 110 South Ninth street, Tacoma. for the Mountain every morning during the 
summer at 7:30, 8 and 8:30 o'clock, reaching Longmire's in SV^ hours. Distance, 70 
miles. Returning, they leave Longmire's at 3:30, making the trip down in 4^^ hours. 
The route is over the new Pierce County road above the Nisqually canyon to Ashford 
and over the government road through the National Park. Fare for the round trip, $7. 
Reservations should be made in advance. 

Automobiles are permitted to enter or leave the National Park only between the 
hours of 8 a. m. and 6 p. m. An automobile permit must be purchased at the keeper's 
lodge, at the western boundary of the Park. This costs $5, and is good for the season, 



THE NA'|-I().\.\I. I'AKK AND IfOW TO REACH IT 



67 



provided lliiii its owner iiiid liis machine obst-rve the rules. The si)eed limit is twelve 
miles i)i'r hour, with six milts on curves. Public safety demands that this rule be 
strictly enforced — -and it is. I'ersons violaliiiK it have the unpleasant exi>erience of 
losing their iHimiis nml findinf? iheir cars chained up. 

The .\;Liii)ii;il i';iiU Inn. I.oiiiiinire Springs, i)rovides excellent rooms and a good 
table, hi adilitioii to the rooms in the Inn, a large number of well-furnished and com- 
fortable tents are provided near by. The rates range from $2.50 to $3.75 a day, 
American iihm. 

At the old I.oiigmire hotel, the rates are $2 to $:i.r>() for ro(jm and board. 

The niiiieial springs are of great variety, and are highly recommended lor their 
medicinal virtues. Within an area of several acres, there are a score of these springs, 
varying from the normal temix-rature of a mountain stream almost to blond heat. Woll- 
api)ointed bath houses are maintained. Fee, including attendance, $1. 

The cost of getting fioin Loui^iuire S|)iiiigs to Paradise Park or linliau ibiiry's is 
moderate. Many jjrefer to mai\e these trii)S on foot. Daily i)arties, with exjjerienced 
guides, are made up sevi-ral limes a day for the trails to each of these great "parks." 
Sure-footed horses are provided for those who wish to ride, at $1.50 for the round trip. 

.-V line of stages carries jjassengers from T^ongmire's over the government road to 
Xisqually glacier, Narada Falls and Camp of the Clouds, in Paradise Park. The charge 
for the trip to Narada and return is $2; to Paradise Park and return, $3. 

At Reese's Camp, in Paradise Park, and at the similar tent hotel in Indian Henry's, 
the charge for meals, with a tent for sleei)ing, is $2.50 per day. 

Guides may be had at the National Park Inn or at either of the "camps" for many 
interesting trips over the motiiiiaiii trails. Horses also are furnished. The charge varies 
with the number in a party. 

For those who wish to make the ascent over the Gibraltar trail, trustworthy guides 
may be enga.ged at the National Park Inn or at Reese's Camp. Arrangements should 
be made several days in advance. The cost of such a trip depends ui)on the number in 
a party. The guides make an initial charge of $25 for the first member of the party, 
and $5 each for the others. They will furnish alpenstocks, ropes, and calks for the shoes 
of motintain climbers at a reasonable charge. Each person should carry with him a 
blanket or extra coat and a small atiiount of food, for use in the event of being on the 
summit over night. Still heavier clothing will be required if the night is to be spent at 
Camp Mtiir. 

Ascents from othei' points ihaii ileese's are usually made in siiecial parties, under 
the guidance of persons familiar with the routes. AH persons are warned not to attempt 
an ascent unless accompanied by experienced guides. Lives have been lost through 
neglect of this precaution. 

For persons visiting the North Side, the Northern Pacific rate from Tacoma to 
Fairfax is .$1.2."): and from Seattle to Fairfax, with change of cars at Puyallu|i. $1.75. 
Guides and horses may be engaged at Fairfax for the Spray Park trail. 




Passing a liig Crevasse on Interglacier. Sour- Dough Mountains on the right, with Grand Park heyond. 
Ruth Mountain (the Wedge) and St. Elmo Pass on left, with Glacier Basin in depression. 





The Mountaineers on W inthrop Glacier. 
III. 

THE s;tory of thp: MorxTAix 

I asked myself. How was this colossal work performed? Who chiseled these mighty 
and picturesque masses out of a mere protuberance of earth? And the answer was at 
hand. Ever young, ever mighty, wnth the vigor of a thousand w-orlds still within him, 
the real sculptor was even then climbing up the eastern sky. It was he who planted 
the glaciers on the mountain slopes, thus giving gravity a plough to open out the 
valleys; and it is he who, acting through the ages, will finally lay low these mighty 
monuments, * * * so that the people of an older earth may see mould spread and 
corn wave over the hidden rocks which at this moment bear the weight of the Jungfrau. 
• — John Tyndall: "Hours of Exercise in the Alps." 

The life of a glacier is one eternal grind. — .John .Muir. 

Ol'R stately Mountain, in its yonth. was as eomely and symmetrical a cone 
as ever graced the galaxy of volcanic peaks. To-day. while still young 
as compared with the obelisk crags of the Alps, it has already taken 
on the venerable and deeply-scarred physiognomy of a veteran. It is no longer 
merely an overgrown boy among the hills, but. cut and torn by the ice of cen- 
turies, it is fast assuming the dignity and interest of a patriarch of the mountains. 




Crossing Carbon Glacier. On the ice slopes, it is customary to divide a large party into companies, with an experienced 

alpinist at the head of each. The picture shows the Mountaineers marching in tens. 

Note the Medial Moraines on the Glacier. 




i- M 



' '. I 



'^ 




Nisqually Glacier. «ith its smirces In the Snow Field of the Siiiiiniit. (In ihc right is Gihrallar Rock and on the extreme left 
Kautz Glacier Ho« s do« n from Peak Success. Note the .Medial Moraines, resulting from junction of Ice Streams above. 
These apparently small lines of dirt are often great ridges of rocks, cut from the cliffs. The picture also illustrates ho« the 
marginal crevasses of a glacier point douii sireani from the center, though the center flows faster than the sides. 




•v 



v.^ 



\ 



^v 



'.,.U 











,,^.«- 

V 







.ill 



'J =. 



^^PV:<'^ 






c 
Z 



*>-.\ 



^ \^ •H.-,_^^ 



Till': S'l'OIiY OF '|-|!1-: MorXTAlX 



71 



To S (I 111 (' . IK) 



II t) t 



t h (' 



snioolli, yoiitliriil 
f'oiitoiirs ol" ;iii ac- 
tive volcano seem 
moro ])oantifiil 
than 111!' Mi'jufil 
g:raii(lciir of the 
Weissliorn. 'I'lir 
perfect cone ol 
:\rt. St. TTclens. 
until I'cccntly in 
♦Tuption. ])l('ascs 
them nioi'c than 
tile broad dome 
of Mt. Adams, 
rounded by a 
prehistoric ex- 
plosion, l^ut nil) 
so with all. To 
those who Iom- 
nature and the 
story written 
upon its face, 
mountains have 




Measuring the Ice Fl()» in the Nisguully Glucicr. In l''(l.^ l'ir>f. J. N. I,c Clonic <>( 
Berkeley, Cal.. established the fact that this Glacier has an aserafie How, in snm- 
mer, of 16.2 inches a day. The inovenient is greater in the center than on the sides, 
and greater on the convex side of a cnr\e than on the concave side. It thus is a true 
river, though a slow one. The measurements are taken by running a line from one 
lateral moraine to the other with a surveying instrument, setting stakes at short 
intervals, and ascertaining the advance they make from da> to day. 



eh a racter as 

truly as men, and they show it in their features as clearly. 

Nowhere is this better exemplified than in the monarch of the (.'ascades. 
No longer the huge conical pimple which a volcano erecteil lui the caiiirs 
crust, it bears on its face the history of its own explosion, wliich scattered its 
top far over the landscape, and of its losing battle with the sun. which, em- 
ploying the heaviest of all tools, is steadily destroying it. It has alreatly lost 
a tenth of its height and a third of its bulk. The ice is cutting deeper and 
deeper into its sides. Upon three of them, it has excavated great amphitheaters 
which it is ceaselessly driving back toward the heart of the peak. As if to 
compensate for these losses of size and shapeliness, the I\Iountain has become 
the most interesting monument and presents the most important phenomena 
of glacial action to be seen anywhere in the United States. 

In dimensions alone, however, it is still one of the world's great peaks. 
The Rainier National Park, eighteen miles square. — as large as many counties 
in the East — has an elevation along its western and lowest boundary averaging 
four thousand feet above sea level. Assuming a diameter of only twenty miles, 
the area covered by the peak exceeds three hundred stpiare miles. Of its vast 
surface upwards of 32.500 acres, or about fifty-one square miles, are covered 
by glaciers or the fields of perpetual snow Avhich feed them. A straight line 



THE MOUNTAIN THAT WAS 'GOD- 




These views show the larger of the two comparatively modern and small craters on the broad platform left by the 

and 1,450 feet from East to West. The other, much smaller, adjoins it so closely that their rims touch. 

miles from North Peak (Liberty Cap) and South Peak (Peak Success). At the 

Crest." The volcano having long been inactive, the craters are tilled 



drawn tlir(»ui.:li t'n»iii 1 lie i-iul oi Xortli Taliouia ulaeicr. on the west side, to the 
end of White olaeier. on the east, would be thirteen miles lonu'. The circum- 
ference of the crest, on the 10. ()()(» foot contour, is nearly seven miles. The 
twelve primary glaciers vary 
in length from thre(^ to eight 
miles, and from half a mile 
to three miles in width. 
There are as many "inter- 
glaciers." or snndler ice 
streams wliicli gather their 
snow supply, not from the 
neve fields of the summit, but 
below the wedges of rock 
which the greater glaciers 
have left standing upon the 
upper slopes. 

The geological story may 
be told in a few untechnical 
words. As those folds in the 
earth w'hich parallel the 
Coast w^ere slowly formed by 
the lateral pressure of sea 
upon land, fractures occuri-cd 
in the incline thus created. 
Through the tissures that 
resulted the subterranean 
fires thrust molten rock wdiich 
formed volcanic craters. The 

most active craters built up, climbing the Cowlltz CU-aver to Gibraltar. This Spine is one of the 
1 ,- I? 1 T great ridges left by the glaciers. On the other side of it is a drop 

by eruptions of lava and of several thousand feet to Nisgually Clacier. 




TIIK STOKV OF 'nil': .Mn|-\'I- MX 




explosion which dccupitulcd ihc I'L-ak. I'rol. I'Ictt measured this Oatcr. and found i( I.WM) feet (nun North lo Soiiili. 
To)<ether they form an eminence of I.IHK) feet on (op of the Mountain, at a distance of more than two 
junction of their rims is the Ureat snou hill (on rijiht of \iew) called "(^oluinhia's 
«ith sno«. but steam and tiases escape in places along their rims. 

nslics. ;i uivnl sci'ii^s of cotics now seen on hotli sides of tin- cordillrr;!. lh;it 
hiiuf iiioiiiit;iiii syslciii wliifli honlcrs llic I'.icilic tVoiii I'x'liriiiL; sf;i to iln- 
iStrails of .Mjiuc'II.'iii. 'riicoin;i-R;iiiiici- is oiic ol' llir \\[<>yr iiii[iort;iiil units in this 
army of volcmic uianls. 

I'lilikc sonic ol' its coniiiaiiioiis. liowcNcr. it owes its hulk loss to la\a Hows 
tlian to the explosive eniptioiis wliicli threw rorlii hoinlis and seofiac. Il is 
a mass id' aLiiiIomei'.-ites. with oidy occasional sti-ata of solid \o|c;ini<- ro(d<. 
This hecoines e\idenl to one who inspects the expused sides i)\' any (d' the 
canyons, or i>\' the iii-eal cliffs. ( iihcaltai' l\o(d<. Little 'ralnnna oi' IJnssidl I'eak. 
It is made (dear even in such ;i piclni'e ,is that ini pa li'c 77 of this hook. 





LunchinS in a Crevasse. l.^.fXK) feet above the sea. Fven Little Tahoma. on the left, is tar below. 



74 



THE MOrXTAIX THAT WAS -GOD" 




Ice-bound lake in Cowlitz Park, with top of 
Little Tahoma in distance. 

structive power must have 
been when their volume was 
many times greater may be 
judged from the moraines 
along their former channels. 
Some of these ridges are hun- 
dreds of feet in height. As 
you go to the ^Mountain from 
Tacoma. either by the Tacoma 
Eastern railway or the Nis- 
qually canyon road, you find 
them everywhere above the 
prairies. ]\Iany of them are 
covered with forests that must 
be centuries old. 

Even now. diminished as 



This looseness of structure 
accounts for the rapidity with 
which the glaciers are cutting 
down the peak. All of them 
carry an extraordinary amount 
of debris, to be deposited in 
lateral or terminal moraines, 
or dropped in streams which 
they feed. They are rivers of 
rock as well as of ice. 

That the glaciers of this and 
every other mountain in the 
northern hemisphere are rapid- 
ly receding, and that they are 
now mere pygmies compared 
with their former selves, is 
well known. AYhat their de- 



-1 




Crevasses in Cowlitz Glacier, with waterfall dropping from 
Cowlitz Park, over Basaltic Cliffs. 




COPYRIGHT 1907, BY W. P. ROMANS 

Spray Park, from Fay Peak, showing the beautiful region between ibe Carbon and North Mowich Glaciers 



Till': STOltV OF TllK MOINTAIX 



t lii'V ;i ri'. till' 'jl.ii-ici's 
are fast 1 i'aiis|i(>rl iiij; 
till' Muiitii aiii towani 
tlie sea. \Vlifi'('\cr ;i 
lilac'icr skirts a ditV. 
it is cutting' iiilo its 
side, as it ('Ills iiitd 
its own l)c(| liildw. 
Fi'diM the ovcrliaiiii- 
iiiiT rocks, too. (l('l)i'is 
I'alls upon the ice 
stream. Tlius the 
marginal m o ra i n r s 
bofjin to fofiii. on 1 lir 
ice, far up the side of 
the peak. As the gla- 
cier advances, driven 
by its own weight ami 
tlio resisth'ss mass ol' 
s n o \v a l)o ve. it is 
often j(Mne(l by an- 
other ulacicr. hfiiiLi- 
in<:' its own niaruinai 
moraines. W'hci'c 1 1n- 
two meet, a medial 
m r a i n e results. * 
Some medial moraines 
are many feet higli. 
Trees ai"(" fouml 
v'rowin.i:' on Iheni. In 
Switzerland houses 
are built upon them. 
Often the debris 
which they transport, 
as the ice carries 
them t'oi-ward. in- 
cludes rocks as ])i<:' 
as a ship. 







"^^^^T.^ ^k^V ^^r 












^-^/'^A 






v.- 




.^v 









jt 



.{■ 











Mazamas rounding Gibraltar— a reminiscence of the ascent by the famous Portland 
Club in 1905. The precipice rises more than I00() feet abii\ e the trail. 



A glacier's tlmv 

varies from a hun<li-ed to a thousand ieet or more a year, depending upon its 
volume, its width, and the slope of its bed. As the decades pass, 
its level is greatly lowered by the melting of the ice. More and moi-e, earth 
and rocks accumulate upon the surface, as it travels onward, and are scattered 
over it ])\- the i-ains and melting snow. At last, in its old age. when far down 



* See iUustrations on pp. 68 and 69. 



78 



THE MOUXTAIX THAT WAS -GOD" 



its eanj'on, the glacier is completely hidden, save where crevasses reveal the 
ice. Only at its snout, where it breaks off, as a rule, in a high wall of ice, do 
we realize how huge a volume and weight it must have, far above toward its 
sources, or why so many of the crevasses on the upper ice fields seem almost 
bottomless. 

These hints of the almost inconceivable mass of a glacier, w4th its millions 
of millions of tons, suggest how much of the ^Mountain has already been 
whittled and planed away. But here we may do better than speculate. The 
original surface of the peak is clearly indicated by the tops of the great rocks 
which have survived the glacial sculpturing. They are from one to two 
thousand feet high. The best known are Gibraltar and the ridges that stretch 
downward from it. Cowlitz Cleaver and Cathedral Rocks, making a great 
inverted V. E a s t - 
ward of this, another 
V, with its apex to- 
ward the summit, is 
called Little Tahoma ; 
and beyond, still an- 
other. Steamboat 
Prow, forming the 
tipof "The Wedge." 

Spines of rock like 
these are found on all 
sides of the peak. 
They help us to esti- 
mate its greater cir- 
cumference and bulk, 
before the glaciers 
had chiseled so dee])- 
ly into it. 

l>ut they do even 
nioi'e. AVherever lava 
flows occurred in the 
building of th( ""^loun- 
tain, stratn lormed: 
and sn c h stratifi • i- 
tion is clearly T'^'ju at 
Avide intervals on the 
sides of the great 
rocks just mentioned. 
Its incline, of course, 
is that of the former 
surface. The strata 
point upward — not ..^ .. . ^ ^. . . .... 

'■ Climbing the Chute on west side of Gibraltar. I his is so steep that the guides 

toward the summit cut steps in the ice. 




THE STORY OF IIIK MorXTAI.V 



79 



which we sec. hut 
far above it. For 
this reason tlie 
Lreolo<rists avIio 
have examined 
the riddles most 
eioselyare agreed 

that the |ic;il< li;is 

lost nearly two 
thousand ft-ct of 
its h (■ i l; li I . It 
blew its own 
head oft"! 

Such exjilosive 
e r u pi ions are 
amoni;' the woi-st 
vices ot' volcan- 
oes. Every vis- 
itor to Naples re- 
m em b ers how 
plainly the land- 
scape north of 
Vesuvin.s tells of 
a prehistoric de- 
capitation. whi(di 
left oidy a low. 
broad platform, 
on the south i-im 
of which the little 
Vesuvius t h a t 
many of us have 
e limbed was 
formed hy hitei- 
eruptions. Siiui- 







Looking from lop o( Gibraltar over the Snow-lields to the Summit. Elevation of camera. 
12, .WO feet. In distance is seen the rim of the Crater. The route to this is a steady 
climb, with 2. (KM) feet of ascent in one mile ot distance. Many detonrs have to be 
made to avoid crevasses. Note the big crevasse stretching away on right — a 
" fJcrgschrund," as the Swiss call a break where one side falls far below the other. 
The stratification on its side shows in each layer a year's sno«. packed into ice. 



larl>-. hei"e at 

home, Mt. Adams and Mt. Baker are truncated cones, while, on llie other hainl, 

St, Helens and Hood are still symmetrical. 

Like Vesuvius, too, Rainier-Taconia has hnilt upon the j)latcau left when 
it lost its' head. Peak Success, overlooking: Indian Ilem-y's. and Liberty Cap. 
the northern elevation, seen from Seattle and 'racoma. are nearly thrcf miles 
apart on the west side of the broad suunnit. These arc parts of the rim of 
the old crater. East of the line uniting them, and about two miles from each, 
the volcano built up an elevation now known as Crater Peak, coniprisint": two 
small adjacent craters. These burnt-out craters are now filled with snow, and 
where the rims touch, a big snow-hill rises — the strange creature of eddying 





^^;'^'^ 







IS'^' ^^■^■^K.iMJt )^5 



■3 
-3 






- o 
Z O 






— a 

- u 






c 



THE STORY OF Till; Mol XIAIX 



81 




North I'cak, or "Liberty Cap," so called from Its resemblance to the Bonnet Kougc of the French Kcvolutionists. 

■elevation, about 14,000 feet. View taken from the side of Crater E'eak, the easternmost and highest 

of the three peaks which crown the Sunimil. Distance, more than two miles. 



winds that sweep up IIii-ouliIi the Lll'eat tluilie cut hy \i>Ir;illie eXplosiiill ;ill(l 

glacial aetiiiii in the west sich' of the peak. * 

This mound of snow is the present actual top. Believing it the iiighest 
point in the I'nited States south of Alaska, tlie ali)inists soiiu- years ago named 
it "Columbia "s ('rest." The name has stuck, in spite it\' tlie faet that the 
govornnient geographers liave adopted, for llie Dictionary of .Mtitudes. tlie 
height found hy Prof. MeAdie, 14,363 feet, thus ranking the Mountain second 
to Mt. Whitney, in California (14.522 feet). 

There are those, however, who refuse to he disabused dj' their belief that 
the height of 14.r)29 feet, found hy many scientific investigators as a result of 
careful hai'ometric ohsei-vat ions, is the true altitude. It is pi-ohahle that 
scientists will not be content until the question sliall have been settled by a 
competent and impartial commission. For the present, however, I give the 
official lignres. .\ few feet of height sigidfy nothiuL:. No C'aliforida pealc. 
hidden awa\- behind the Sierra, can vie in majesty with the .Mountain 
that rises in stately- gi-andeur from the shores of Puiret Siuind. 

The wide area which the ^Tountaiu thrusts up into ihe sk_\- is ;i highly 
efficient coinbMisei- >>{' moisture. Xejii- Id the Pacific as it is. it collects several 
hundred feet of snow each year from the warm Chinooks. ;ind on all sides this 
mass presses down, to feed the ])rimary glaciers of the ui>|>ei- slopes. Starting 
from Paradise, these in order are: Cowlitz and iniii-ah.im glaciers; "White 



* See illustratii>ii on page 28, which .'^how.s not only the deep cleft on the west side, but 
also the three peaks on the summit. 



82 



THE MOUNTAIN THAT WAS "GOD" 



glacier, largest of all ; Winthrop glacier, named iu honor of Theodore Winthrop, 
in whose delightful romance of travel. "The Canoe and the Saddle," the ancient 
Indian name "Tacoma" was first printed; Carbon, North and South ^lowich. 
Puyallup, North and South Tahoma, Kautz and Nisqually glaciers. 

The most important secondary glaciers, or "interglaciers, " rising below 
the rock wedges, are Interglacier, Paradise, Stevens, Frying-Pan and Van 
Trump. 

There has been considerable uncertainty as to some of these names, chiefly 
due to a recent government map. For instance, in that publication. White 
glacier, most properly so called because it feeds the White river, was named 
Emmons glacier, after S. F. Emmons, a geologist who made one of the first 
explorations of the peak. North and South ]\Iowich glaciers, feeding streams 
similarly named, were miscalled Willis and Edmunds glaciers, after Bailey 
Willis, geologist, and George F. Edmunds, late United States senator, who 
visited the Mountain many years ago. South Tahoma glacier was renamed 
Wilson glacier, for A. D. Wilson. Emmons's companion in exploration. Finally, 
the name of General Hazard Stevens, who made the first ascent of the peak in 
1870, was misplaced, being given to the west branch of the Nisqually, whereas 
Stevens glacier is the well-defined interglacier adjoining the Paradise on 
the east. 

Such errors in a government document are the more inexcusable because 
their author ignored names adopted in the original publications of the Geolog- 
ical Survey. The new map prepared by i\Ir. Ricksecker, and printed herewith, 
returns to the older and better usage. Unless good reason can be shown for 
departing from it. his careful compilation .should be accepted as authoritative. 




The Mountaineers crossing a precipitous slope on White Glacier. Little Tahoma in distance. 



THE STOUV OP THK MOTWTMX 



83 




Hydro-clcctric plant ill RIcctroii, on the Fuyallup ri\cr. producinit 2K,U0U h. p. 



A word about the iiidusti'ial value of the Mountain may not he without 
interest in this day of electricity. It is well known that, within a radius of 
sixty miles of the lu;id of Puget Sound, more water descends from hi<rh levels 
to the sea than in any oilier similar area in the United States. The greater 
part of this is collected <»ti the largest peak. Hydraulic engineers have esti- 
mated, on investigation, an average annual precipitation, for the summit and 
upper slopes, of at least 180 inches, or four times the rainfall in Taeoma or 
Seattle. The melting snows feed the White. Puyallup and Nisciually rivers, 
large streams flowing into the Sound, and the Cowlitz, an important tributary 
of the Columbia. The minimum flow of these streams is computed at more 
than 1200 second feet, while their average flow is nearly twice that total. 

The utilization of this large water supply on the steep mountain slopes 
began in 1904 with the erection of the Electron plant of the Puget Sound 
Power Company. For this llie water is diverted from the Puyallu|» i-iver ten 
miles from the end of its glacier, and 1750 feet above sea level, and carried 
ten miles more in an open flume to a reservoir, from which four steel penstocks, 
each four feet in diameter, carry it to the power house 900 feet below. The 
plant generates 28.000 h. p.. whieli is conveyed to Taeoma, twenty-five miles 
distant, at a pressure of 60,000 volts, and there is distributed for the operation 
of street railways, lights and factories in that city and Seattle. 

A more important development is in progress on the larger White river 
near Buckley, where the Pacific Coast Power Company is diverting the water 
by a dam and eight-mile canal to Lake Tapps, elevation 540 feet above tide. 
From this great reservoir it will be taken through a tunnel and pipe line to 
the generating plant at D<Mringer. elevation 65 feet. The 100.000 h. p. produced 
here will be cari-ied lifteeu mih-s to Taeoma. for sale to manufacturers in the 
Puget Sound cities. 

Both these plants ;ire enterprises of Stone & Webster, of Boston. A eom- 



84 



THE MOUNTAIN THAT WAS -GOD" 



petitive plant is now under 
construction by the city of 
Tacoma. utilizing the third 
of the rivers emptying into 
the Sound. The Nisqually 
is dammed above its re- 
markable canyon, at an ele- 
vation of 970 feet, where its 
minimum flow is 300 second 
feet. The water will be car- 
ried through a 10.000-foot 
tunnel and over a bridge to 
a reservoir at La Grande, 
from which the penstocks 




Building Tacoma's 
Electric Power 
Plant on the Nis- 
qually Canyon. 
Upper view shows 
site of retention 
dam, abo\'e tunnel; 




middle view, end of 
tunnel, where pipe- 
line will cross the 
canyon on a bridge: 
lower view, site of 
the generating 
plant. 




will carry it down the side 
of the canyon to the 40.000 
h. p. generating plant on 
the river below. The city 
expects to be able to pro- 
duce power for its own ^^se. 
Avith a considerable margin 
for sale, at a cost at least as 
l(iw as can be attained any- 
where in the United States. 
Its success will be largely 
due to the admirable de- 
signs and beginning of con- 
struction made under ^Ir. 



o 



o 

o 



0" 


o 




1 pUdUv 



'ID 
■;s. 



THH STORY OP I' UK MOUNTAIN 



87 



Frank ( '. Ki'lscy. 

foriiuT cliii-r en- 
gineer. 

The rocks of 

whicli ill!' MiMiii- 

tain is eoinposcMl 

are mainly atidf- 

sitcs "f ilitTcft'iit 

classes and liasalt. 

But tlic |)caK- rcsls 

upon a |ila1 turin of 

granite, into whicli 

the glncici-s have 

cut in their prog- 
ress. Several ol' the 

canyons disclose 

tine outei'oppini;s 

of the oldi'i' anil 

hard(M* l-oek. These 

a re es p e e i a 1 1 y 

clear on 1 he side (d' 

the Nisipially. jnst 

helow the present 

eiul (){' its Lilaeier. 

as well as on the 

Carbon and in .Mo- 
raine Park. whi(di 

was until i'ecentl_\- 

the lied of a glacier. This accounts for the fact that the river beds are full 

of trranit<' bowld- 
ers, wh i ch a re 
lirindini; the s(^ft- 
rv \dlcanic shin- 
uile into soil. Thus 
the glaciers are 
not only fast de- 
forming the peak. 
They are "sow- 
ing the seeds of 
continents to 
r3'R5=f-« be 




Admiral Peter Rainier, of the Hritish Navy, in whose honor Captain Georfte \'ancou\er, 
in 1792, named the great peak"Mt. Rainier." 




Echo Rock, on w est hranch ot Carhon Glacier. 




-= ^ 



•zl — 

- C. 

- c 



-C ; 



u 3 
3 a: 




r'c.pyrislit. 1909. by Asahel r-urtis 
View looking across Moraine Park and Carbon Glacier to Mother Mountains. 



IV. 

THE FLORA OF THE :\rOUNTAIX SLOPES 

By PROF. J. B. FLETT * 

Of all the fire-mountains which, like beacons, once blazed along the Pacific Coast, 
Mount Rainier is the noblest in form. Its massive white dome rises out of its forests, 
like a world by itself. Above the forests there is a zone of the loveliest flowers, fifty 
miles in circuit and nearly two miles wide, so closely planted and luxuriant that it seems 
as if Nature, glad to make an open space between woods so dense and ice so deep, 
were economizing the precious ground, and trying to see how many of her darlings 
she can get together in one mountain wreath — daisies, anemones, columbines, 
erythroniums, larkspurs, etc., among which we wade knee-deep and waist-deep, the 
bright corollas in myriads touching petal to petal. Altogether this is the richest 
subalpine garden I ever found, a perfect floral elysium. — John Muir: "Our National 
Parks." 



NO ONE can visit the Mountain with- 
out being impressed by its wild 
flowers. These are the more noticeable 
because of their high color — a common 
characteristic of flowers in alpine regions. 
As we visit the ^lountain at a season when 
the spring flowers of the lowlands have gone 
to seed, we find there another spring season 
with flowers in still greater numbei- jind more 
varied in color. 

The base of the Mountain up to an altitude 
of about 4,000 feet is covered bv a somber 



* Prof. Flett knows the Mountain well. He has 
spent many summers in its "parks," has climbed to 
its summit four times, has visited all its glaciers, and 
iias made a remarkable collection of its flowers. In 
addition to the chapter on the botany of the Natural 
Park, this book is indebted to him for several of its 
most valuable illustrations. 




Anemones 



■1I1I-; FI.OliA OF I UK AlOl X'lAI.X SLOl'KS 



91 



fort' si of ovcr- 
yret'lls coiiiixiscd (il 
the wliitc ;iii(l lihirk 
pi 11 1' s ; I ) ti II l: 1 .1 s. 
lovely jiihI imlilt' 
fi r s ; t h w li i t (' 
cedar: s|)!-iicf. jiml 

llclllliM'k. 'riiiTr .iri' 
fouml .ilsu sc\rl-;il 

clefiiliuMis t n- (' s — ■ 
larii'c-lcjil't'd innpli'. 
whiti' ;ild('r. coltoii- 
\V()<m|. i|I|;i kitiL;' ;is- 
p e 11. \ i 11 !■ ;i 11 d 
S m (> o 1 li 1 (' ;i !'(■( I 
maplt's. iind S('\rr;il 

species ol' willows. 
Thus the silva ol' 
the Idwci' slopes is 
highly varied. Tlie 
forest is often inler- 
r u p t e d h y t h e 
glacial canyons, aiul. 
at intervals, by fire- 
swept areas. 

The alpine mea- 
dows beuiii 111 ap- 
pear at an altitude 
of about 5.000 feet. 

The real alpine trees, with their ti'ini. straiLihl Iruiiks and drnn].iii'j branches, 
are in strange contrast to their relatives ol' the lower altitude. Tin' |>riiicipal 
trees of the meadow area are the alpine i\v. the alpine hemlock, and the Alaska 
cedar. These constitute the greater jjarl id' the silva of Paradise Valley. There 
are a few trees of the lovely fir in the lower part of the valley, and a few white- 
barked pines overlooking the glaciers ai tiinber line. 

The trees of the park zone ditfer greatly on ditTerent slopes. On the 
northeast and east, the while-barked |)ine and the alpine spruce form no 
small part of the tree groups. The white-barked ])ine branches out like the 
scrub oak on the prairie. It is never seen at a low altitude. The alpine spruce 
bears numerous cones all over the tree, and has sharp leaves. thouLdi not so 
sharp as its relative, the tideland spruce. 

Not only is there a difference in the trees on the different slopes of the 
Mountain, but there is a marked difference in the herbaceous plants as well. 
Hesperogenia StrictLondi is a small, yellow plant of the celery family. This 
is very abundant, both in Spray Park and also in the country east of the 




A H-foot Fir, near Miiii-ral Lake 




Sunrise in Indian Henry's Park, with view of the Southwest Slope and Peak Success, showing Purple Asters, with bunches 

o{ Hellebore in center ot Flower Field 



Till'] Pl.OitA <)I' 'I'lll': MOIXTAIX SI.OPKS 



93 



('.iriiDii (;l;iricr. lull r,ii-c oii llir sKiitli side. 
(I'ili.i Xiil t.illii. ;i l.ii-'ji'. |ilili».\-liki' |il;iii1. is 
;i liiiiK hint niilv ill llii' lijili.iii Ilriifv r('}4:iuii. 

'I'wn ,1 llclllulH's. uljc lull I iTcll |i, llircc willnWS 
;ill(| iijlr si'll.-clM srciii In lir (•(illlillcd Id lilt' 

Wliilr lii\ii- i-iiiinlr\ 'ihi- moss cjiiniiKiii 

ll;iS hern rnliml uIl \\ nil MiiW icll. 
^ The liinst Mill iccililr ;iii(l ,1 1 »i I II 1 1 ;i 1 1 1 iNtWcr 

^J on ;ill slo|)('s is lilt' avaliiiiclie lily ( Erytlii-oii- 
iiiiii iiioiitMiiuin ). This plant conu's up tlwiniirli 
sc\ri;i| iiifhi's ol' tilt' old siit)\v t-nist. ainl 
roiiiis hciiit i fill hi'tls t>|" purt' wliitf flowtTs. 
Im llir rxchisioii of iicaflx all oilier plants. 
Tlici'c an- ot'li'ti IVoiii .seven to nine hlossoius 
on a stt'tii. This has othei" popular names, 
such as deertoneiie ami ailderloiiuiie. Tliei'e 
is also a yellow species, j^rowin^f with the 
(ither. Imi! less ahiindant. Tt seldom has more 
than one or two llowefs on a stem. The yellow 
alpine Initterc-ui) uciuTally iirows with the erylhroniums. ll al.su tries to rush 




An eminent scientist practices the simple life 
near the I imher Line 






Floral Carpet in Indian Henry's Park, where "Mountain Heliotrope," more properly Valerian, and other 

flowers abound near the snow line 



94 



THE MOUNTAIN THAT WAS "GOD' 



the season by coming np through 
the snow. The western anemone 
is a little more deliberate, but is 
found quite near the snow. It may 
be known by its lavendcM-. or purple 
flowers; and later l)y its large 
plume-like heads, which are no 
less admired than the flowers them- 
selves. 

The plants just mentioned are 
the harbingers of spring. Follow- 
ing them in rapid succession are 
many plants of various hues. The 
mountain dock, mountain dande- 
lion, and potentilla seldom fail to 





Alpine Hemlock and Mountain Lilies. In 
struggle for existence at the Timber Line 
Flowers prosper, but Trees fight for 
life against storm and snow. 



the 



Mountain Asters. 

appear later. The asters, often wrongly 
called daisies, are represented by several spe- 
cies, some of which blossom early, and are 
at their best along with the spring flowers. 
The great majority of the composite family 
bloom later, and thus prolong the gorgeous 
array. The lupines add much to the beauty 
of this meadow region, both at a low altitude, 
and also in the region above timber line. 
Their bright purple flowers, in long racemes, 
with palmate leaves, are very conspicuous on 
the grassy slopes. Between timber line and 
8,500 feet, Lyall's lupine grows in dense silk 
mats, with dark purple flowers — the most 
beautiful plant in that zone. 

Four different kinds of heather are found 
on the Mountain. The red heather is the 
largest and the most abundant. It grows at 
a lower altitude than the others, and is some- 
times, erroneously, called Scotch heather. 




Looking down from ''tHrniigan RiJijc into the Canyon of the Noitli Mo« icl) Glacier and up to the rioud-wreathed Peak 



•-1 1 1 /'■ t 






Till-: FLORA OK 'IIII-: MOINIAIX SI.Ol'KS 




Stiid\ intt llic I'hiox. 



Tliri'c jiiv two kinds of while hcMllicr. 
Hora. ol'lt'ii urowiiiL; with tlic red. The 

nboul tilllbrf line. The yellow lle;illler 

is lai'^tT and moi'c coiiiinoii lliaii the 
otliers. It ol'teii forms lieautirul areas 
where other vegetation is I'are. The 
wliite rhodo(h'ndroii is a heautil'nl shrnli 
of the htwei' meadows. Its creamy white 
hh^ssoms remind one of tlie cultivated 
azalea. There are sevei-al hutdvleberries, 
some Avith large bushes growing in the 
lower forest area, otliers small and 
adapted to the grassy meadows. 

The figwort family has many and i-uii 
ous representatives. The rose - purple 
monkey-flower is very eomiiion .md eon- 
spicuoiis in the lower meadows, along the 
streams. It is nearly always accompa))- 
ied ])y the yellow fireweed. Higher up, 
large meadow areas are arrayed in bi-ight 
yellow by the alpine monkey-flower. 
Above timlier line, two pentstemons. with 
matted leaves and short stems willi bril- 
liant purple and red flowers, cover large 



One forms a prominent part (d' the 

othei' is less eonspienous a)id ijrows 
also grcjws at the same ;dlituile. and 




Squaw Grass, or Mountain Lily 

(Xerophyllum tcnax) 




Mosses and Ferns, in the Forest Keser\e, on way to l.ongmire Springs. 



Till'; Fi.()i{.\ OK riih: .moixiaix slopes 



91* 




I'lii-ky |i;i1clics. mixed here 
.•MhI I llrlT wiili laXfllllcr linls 
I if 1 hr ;il|)iii(' ])lllnx : AVllilc the 
.•iinlii'i- r;iys of llic uinldi-n 
.istiT. sc.it tfi-i'(| llir()U<rh these 
\;ii-ic'j;ilci| ImmIs. Inid tlicir 
i-li.ii'iii Id llic rii(d<y fid'jrs. 
Till' liidi;iii |i;iiiit lii-lisli. ill.- 
speed We I I. the eleiilljllll 's 
tniidc. ;iiid the j)i<fe(»ii l)ills 
Jil'e all Welldciiowil liieillhers 
of Ili(i lai'irc fiLMVoi-t i'amily 
Axliicli d(ies iiiiirh to cinbcl- 
lisli the .Moiiiiiaiii Inea(lo^vs. 
The xaleriaii. oricii wi'miiily 
<■ .1 1 1 !■ d ' ■ iiiiiiiiitaiii helio- 
liiipe." is very common nn 
the i:rassy slopes. Its odoi- 

can often I)e deterled befoi-e 
if is seen. The I'usy spii'aea. 
the iiioiiiitaiii ash. and the 
wild eiirrant. ai-e three eom- 
1111)11 shi-iihs ill this area. 
T h e re are alsii iiiiiiieriHis 
small liei-haceinis i)lants of 
the saxifrage family, some 
f(n"ming dense mats to tlu^ exclusion of other plants. The mertensias. pole- 
luoiiiums. and sliootin^' stars add nnich to the purple ami blue colorin<z'. 

Two liliaceous plants of low altitude are always objcN-ts of marked intei'est. 
Tile ('liiiloiiia. popularly called al[uiie Iteauly. begins in the forest area, and 
continues up to the lowei- meadows. This may be known by its pure white 
blossoms and blue herries. Its lea\-es are oIiIoiil; in tufts of fi-om two to four. 
They spi-iiru' up iieai- the roots. The other is xerophylliim. mountain lily, some- 
times calle(l sipiaw u'rass. because it is used by the Indians in basket making. 
This lias tall stems with small fraiirant thiwers and coarse grass-like leaves. 

The writer has a list of about three hnndreil and sixty species from the 
-Mountain. It includes only llowering plants and ferns. There are uuu'e 
than twenty 1yi)e species named fi'om the .Mountain, not a U'W of whi<di 
are found nowhei-e I'lse. Its ueoui-aphic.d ])osition makes it the boundary 
between the arctic i)lants fi-om the Xorlh and the plants of Oregon and 
California from the South. Its great altitude has a wonderful effect on plant 
life. A good example of this is seen upon the trees at timber line, where 
twenty feet or more of snow rests upon therii for many lunnths. Their prostrate 
trunks and gnarled branches give ample testimony to their extreme struggle 
for existence. The prevailing wind on the high ridges gives direction to their 



.Avalanche Lilies (Erythroiiium montaiiuiu) torcintt iheir «,iy throuuli 

the snow. 



ei':^Qe;o7 



100 



THE MOUNTAIN THAT WAS "GOD" 




Copyright. 190i:i. by Asahel Curtis 
Moraine Park, Sluiskin MuuiUalns and Mystic Lake. 

trunks and l)i'anche.s. The latter hang from the leeward side, giving the trees 
a one-sided ajipearance. Where the ordinary plants cease to exist the snoAvy 
protoeoecus holds undisputed sway on the extensive snow fields. This is a 
small one-celled microscopic plant having a blood red color in one stage of 
its existence. Tourists often wonder what animal has been killed on the snow. 
On some snow fields and glaciers, it is found associated with a small black 
angle-worm. The writer has wondered whether the plant furnished food to 
this little black wiggier in his inhospitable home. 

Plant life, on the JNIountain. as is well known, does not stop at the snow 
line. Even in the crater, on the warm rocks of the rim, will be found three 
or four mosses — I have noted one there which is not found anywhere else — 
several lichens, and at least one liverwort. 




Canada Dogwood (Cornus canadensis) 




Glacial Debris on lower part of Winthrop Glacier, with Sluiskin Mountains beyond. 

V. 

THE CLIMBERS 

Climb the mountains, and get their good tidings. .\ature"s peace will flow into 
you as sunshine flows into trees. The winds will blow their own freshness into you, 
and the storms their energy, while cares will drop off like autumn leaves. — John ;Muir. 

GTVf]X u'cKid muscles and wind, the other requisites for an ascent of the 
Mountain are a competent guide and grit. It offers few problems like 
those confronting the climber of the older and more crag-like Alps. 
There are no perpendicular cliff's to scale, no abysses to .swing across on a rope. 




\'iew of Paradise Valley from Pinnacle Peak, with South-side Route to the Summit. The route starts at Reese's 

Camp, crosses the snow-fields abose .Nisqually Glacier, follows the Cowlitz Cleaver nearly to Gibraltar, then 

turns east to avoid cre\asses, passes Gibraltar from East to West, climbs the "Chute" on its West 

side, and then makes the straightest line the crevasses will permit for Crater Peak. 



Tllh: CI.I.MHKRS 



103 




II Veil c.-lll sl;ill(| ihr I ilim>llll|r|il < 1 1' ;| Idll'J'. 
slf;i(|\. Ilp-llill |i||ll. i<\rv tile ice :|||(| loiiSC 

rocks. \(iu iii;iy s.ii'cjy jdiii ;i p.irly Idr llic 
Miiiiinil. I'>iil (Id Mill li-\- it willidiit L'liidcs. 
Till' r.il.il I'lnl df ( ';ill;p^li;iii :iii(| Slc\cils, 

III l'tl)!l. slidiild jdiiL: scf\i- ;is ;i \\;i ni illL'' 
;i'_:;i iiisl Inisliiiu Id cxiicrii'iicf dii dllicr 
iiidiiiil ;i ins. N'd such wilderness df crevjisscs 
,ilid sliil'till'.; siidW sldpes slididd lie ;ill;nd<ed 
s;i\-e ill cdin|i;iny with thdse who know its 
lr;iils. 

ir diic is udinu llie |Mijiid;ir fdiite, ;ind is 
e((ii;il td sd ldii'_; ;ind iinlirdkeii ;i idiiiili. In- 
iii;iy sl;ir1 I'l'diii ('.•iiiip df the ( 'jdiids ;it d;iw"n. 
;iiid re;ich the id|i hel'dre ijddn. l>iit |i;irties 
iVeilUellt l> Lid ll|i ('dwlitz ('|e;iver in the 
('\'eniiiL;. ;inil spend the iiiuht ;it (';iiiip .Miiir. 
;i ledei' heldW" ( I i I )r;i 1 1 ;ir. ininied t'l-din the 
fjinidiis iiidiin1;iin cliiidtef. .Idhn .Mnir. ;ind 
drfei-iiiL: tidlie dl' llie ;i ccdi n 1 1 1 dd;! t i dll s df ;i 
■■cjiiiip" s;i\c ;i wiiiddi!'e;i k. 'I'lie iiii|»di-t;int 

i-,,|,.vni;ln. I'.ilu. f. K. (ult.r 1 h i 11 l:' js lo pJISS ( J i 1 1 fJI 1 1 JIT iMl'lv. Ilid'dfe the 

i he Oldest and the Youngest of the Climbers, j > ^i i i i i- ■ • i i 

Gen. Hazard Stevens and Jesse McRae. ' ^'l" ^till'ls the dailv shdWer n\ Iclck'S illld 

General Stevens, with P. B. Van Trump, in rd(d<S I'l'dlll tile elilT dNCr tile tl'Jiil. 'I'llis is 

1870, made the tirst ascent ot the Mountain. 

In \W^. he came west from his home in Bos- MM' 111 d S 1 

ton and ioined the Ma/.amas in their climh. ( I I'l 1 1 < 'C |' ( )ns 

I he picture shows him before his tent in 

Paradise Park. Me was then 6.^ years old. pnlllt. I Hit 

no lives 
have cvei' hecii lost here. I^'ery where, of 
course, caiitidii is needed. ( )\-ercd!ilideiice 
may prove as costl\ as it did to I'rof. i^dizar 
Mc'Clure. of tile I 'iii\ crsity of ()reL;(»ii. who. 
in 1S!)7. was killed while desci'iidiiiL;' I'roiii 
( 'amp Miiir after dark. 

The cast - side route in\dl\cs less daiiecr. 
perhaps, hut is a loiiuci' climli ovei- the ice. 
It has been less used because it is farther Iimuii 
Paradise \'alley. Startinji" from a iiii;lit"s eii- 
canipment on the Wed^e. jiarties usually vf- 
'piire lialf a day to reacdi the summit. 

The (Til)raltar route has been the popular 
one ev(M- since ( leii. Hazard Ste\-ens and P. 1*>. 

Van Truiii]). on duly 17. KS7U. used it in the ■ite.j* 

tirst successful ascent of the Mountain. Kach , . ,. .^ , ., ^ c 

. 1 • 1 '' '*-^a" Trump, who. \Mth Gen. Stevens, 

01 these piOlieel'S on the summit has ])Ubllshed made the first ascent in 1S70. 






rill. to by I^ea Bronson < 'nin ripht. irt09, by P. V. Caesar 

Axalanch-.- falling on \\'il!is Wall, at head of the (Srcat Aniphithfater of Carbon Glacier. The Cliff here, up to the Snow Cap 

\ isible on the Summit, is more than 4,000 feet high and nearly perpendicular. Avalanches fall every day, 

but this picture of a big one in action is probably unique in Mountain Photography. 



106 



THE .MOrXTAIX THAT WAS ■'GOD" 



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East Side of the Mountain, from the Wedge, showing Route to the Summit over the great White Glacier. 

This is the easiest and safest of all the routes. 

;i noteworthy account of how they 
uot there. General Stevens in the 
Atlantic ^Monthly for November, 
1876, and Mr. Van Trump in the 
second volume of ^lazama. A 
month after their ascent, they were 
followed over the same route by 
Messrs. Emmons and Wilson of 
the Geological Survey. 

Thirteen years before, in 1857, 
Lieutenant (later General) A. V. 
Kautz, with several companions, 
liad made the first attempt to scale 
the peak of which we have any 
record. He climbed up the arete, 
or spine, between the glacier now 
named for him and the Niscjually 
glacier, but turned back on the 
approach of night, when probably 
within a thousand feet of the sum- 
mit. Ilis route has since been fol- 

Lateral Moraine of Carbon Glacier. Mountaineers building l«>^Ved SUCCCSsfully to thc tOp by 

Trail. Many such Trails have been built, and more SCVCral particS, tllC first, IbelicVC, 
are under construction. Without them the . <> a i n\^ ^ 

"Tenderfoot" would fare badly indeed. U^\\\g that of McSSrS. GlaSCOCk 




THK CIJ.MI'.KRS 



107 




MiHiMliiiiifi'is' (>amp. MoiaiiiL- l'a:k. ()\ ci li)i)kiiiR huad uf (Jarhmi Glacier. 



;lll(| Dudley (if lllr SirlT.I Cllll). nf S;ill l-'l'.l llciscd. in IIM).'). 'I'll,. WllitC fjlaciei* 

roiiti' \v;is licst used in 1 ss."). In ]S!ll Mr. \';iii Ti'uiiip i'c;iclic(l the Niiiiiiiiit over 
llic rid^'c dixidiiiLi' ihc 'I' ;i li n in ii 
>i'I<i('icrs. The lifst woninn tn in;d<i' tT^ 
the ascent w;i.s Miss F;iy i-'niliM-. n\' f^ JP \ 
Tnponin. in 1S!1(I. ' " 

The norlli ;ind iioi'l liwcst sides. ;is 
1 li;i \c s;iid. ;ii'e ;is \ i'\ nnei in(| nefi'd. 
Soilie niendiefs (if the M on I1 1 ;i i 1 leel's " 

Cluli inive ,1 tlieorv tli;i1 the sniiiiiiil 
oaii ))»' re;ielied rroiii A \;il;inclie 
Caiii|) l)y (diinliiiiL; ;il(>iii;' llie I'nce id' 
llie (dilV kiiiiwii ;is lJiiss(dl IN'iik. and 
so ai'iMind 1(1 tile iippci- siidw held id' 
"Wild llTdp Lllaeiel". They lia\'e seen 
iiKUint aiii Lioats iiwik'iiiL;' the triji. and 
propose to 1 I'y it t hellisehcs. Whether 

they siu-ceed or not. liiis trail will 
never be popnhir. owiiii^ to the laiid- 
.slides caused l»y the dnily elili ;iiid 

tJoW" of frost in the loose roidc of 

which the cJilT is Iniill . 

Til recount iiiL: the famous ascents 
of the .Moiiiiljiiti. ;i word is due to 
the work of three well-known (diihs 
of jilpinists. the M;i/;inias. (d' I'ort- 
laiid : the Sierra Clul). of (';diforiii;i. 
and tin- Mountaineers, a later organi- 
zation, havino- its head(|uarters in 
Seattle ,-111(1 I'rol'. |-:. S. Meniiy of the 

University id' Washington as its en- Serracs. or Icc I'lnnadcs. Carb.,,. Glacier. 





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110 



THE MOUXTAIX THAT WAS "GOD" 



thusiastie president. The ^Nlazamas 
have made two ascents, with lar^c 
parties, and each of the other clubs 
has made one. Many members of 
the Appalachian Club and of Euro- 
pean organizations of similar pur- 
pose have climbed to Crater Peak, 
either in company with the West- 
ern clubs named, or in smaller 
parties. 

All of these clubs have done 
much to make the ^Mountain better 
known. Each of the Coast socie- 
ties publishes a periodical. The 
numbers of these publications de- 
scribing the ascents by the clubs 
are of scientific value as well as 
popular interest. 

An excellent, though incomplete, 
bibliography, prepared by Miss 
Mary Banks, may be found in the 
Mountaineer for November, 1909. 
It covers the important scientific 
publications on the Mountain thor- 
oughly, and cites a large number 
of magazine articles. The list of 
publications hitherto wholly de- 
voted to the subject is a very brief 
one. the chief titles, outside of 
books of pictures alone, being 
James Wickersham's pamphlet on 
the name ("Is it 'Mt. Tacoma' or 
'Kainier,' " Tacoma. 1893), Oliii 
D. Wheeler's "Climbing Mt. 
Kainier." St. Paul. 1901. and Fred 
G. Plummer's "Illustrated Guide 
Book to Mt. Tacoma," Tacoma, no 
date. 

I close this brief essay with ex- 
pert testimony. In 1883, Prof. Zit- 
tel. the German scientist, and Prof. 
James Bryce, long president of the 
British Alpine Club, author of 
"The American Commonwealth," 
and now British ambassr.dor to the 
United States, explored our great 




Copyright, 1909, by Asahel Curtis 
Spray Falls, a splendid scenic feature of the North Side, where 
it drops more than five hundred feet from the Spray Park 
table-land intci the Canyon of North Mowich Glacier. 



THK ("UMHRRS 



111 




' ■M'yiiKht. UilO, liy «'. E. Culler 

Till.- MiMiiitalii. as seen from a hi«h ridttc in the (cascades near Green River Mol Springs, 
sliovvinK the North and Hast faces of the Peak. 

I)i';il<. Lntrf. tlii'sc l';iimiiis inoiiiil niii climlx'i's uiiiird in piihlisliiiiL;' ;i iinic tm 
tlit'ir iiiiprt'ssions. Tlicy .saitl. in part: 

The scenery is of rare and varied beauty. Tlie peak itself is as noble a mountain 
as we have ever seen, in its lines and structure. The glaciers which descend from its 
snow fields present all the characteristic features of those in the Ali)s. and thou.^li less 
extensive than the ice streams of the Mount Blanc or Monla Rosa groui)s, are in their 
crevasses and serracs equally striking and equally worthy of close study. 

We have nothing more beautiful in Switzerland or Tyrol, in Norway or in the 
Pyrenees, than the Carbon river glaciers and the great Puyallup glaciers. Indeed, the 
ice in the latter is unusually pur(>. and the crevasses are unusually fine. The com- 
bination of ice scenery with woodland scenery of the grandest type is to be found 
nowhere in the Old World, unless it be in the Himalayas, and, so far as we know, 
nowliere else on the American continent. 




Returning from the Summit. I he Mountaineers ending a memorable outing in 1905. W inthrop Glacier 

in foreground. Sluiskin Mountains in distance. 



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MAP OF 

PUGET SOUND COUNTRY 

AND ROADSTO 

MT RAINIER - TACOMA 



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Compiled by EUGENE RICKSECKER, 
U. S. Assistant Engineer 




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